Marjoram Leaf

Marjoram (Origanum majorana)

Marjoram (Origanum majorana) is a somewhat cold-sensitive perennial herb or undershrub with sweet pine and citrus flavors. In some Middle Eastern countries, marjoram is synonymous with oregano, and there the names sweet marjoram and knotted marjoram are used to distinguish it from other plants of the genus Origanum. It is also called pot marjoram, although this name is also used for other cultivated species of Origanum.

Find it in Mother Jai’s Cold & Flu Tea, shop below.

OTHER NAME(S): Essence de Marjolaine, Garden Marjoram, Gartenmajoran, Huile de Marjolaine, Knotted Marjoram, Maggiorana, Majoran, Majorana Aetheroleum Oil, Majorana Herb, Majorana hortensis, Majorana majorana, Marjolaine, Marjolaine des Jardins, Marjolaine Ordinaire, Marjolein, Marjoram Essential Oil, Marjoram Oil, Marubaka, Marwa, Mejorana, Mejram, Origan des Jardins, Origan Marjolaine, Origanum majorana, Sweet Marjoram.

It is commonly used for runny nose, coughs, colds, infections, and various digestion problems, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these or any other uses. In foods, marjoram herb and oil are used as flavorings. In manufacturing, the oil is used as a fragrance in soaps, cosmetics, lotions, and perfumes.

Don’t confuse it with winter marjoram or oregano (Origanum vulgare), which is also referred to as wild marjoram.

BENEFITS OF MARJORAM

Asthma. Early research shows that taking 2 drops of the essential oil daily along with asthma medication for 3 months might improve lung function in people with asthma better than taking asthma medication alone.

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Anti-Inflammatory Effects: When added to your food, it can help reduce your risk of developing inflammatory reactions. It can help with conditions such as asthma, fever, muscle aches, sinus headaches and migraines.

Improved Digestive Function: When used to make tea, this herb can help improve your digestion by improving your appetite and increasing the production of digestive enzymes that help break down food. In addition, marjoram tea can help alleviate common digestive disorders such as flatulence, constipation, diarrhea and stomach cramps.

Improved Heart Health: it can help improve your overall cardiovascular health by maintaining normal blood pressure levels, which lowers your risk of hypertension. It’s also known for helping reduce the buildup of cholesterol in your arteries, which can prevent heart disease.

Painful menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea). Early research suggests that massaging a cream containing lavender, clary sage, and marjoram essential oils to the abdomen may reduce pain in some women with painful menstrual cramps. The effect of marjoram essential oil alone on menstrual cramps is unclear.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Early research suggests that drinking the tea might improve some chemical markers of PCOS, but overall it does not seem to improve body weight, blood sugar, or levels of certain hormones in women with PCOS.

Protection Against Common Illnesses: it contains various compounds that have effective antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties. As such, it can help reduce your risk of diseases such as the common cold, measles, mumps, influenza, food poisoning and various staph infections.

Therapeutic Benefits: in its essential oil form, can help uplift your mood and improve your psychological well-being. It can be used to help relieve insomnia and reduce stress and anxiety.

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BENEFITS OF MARJORAM ESSENTIAL OIL

Collected by steam distillation of the fresh flowering tops. Marjoram oil happens to be popular among aromatherapy enthusiasts, and is known for providing a warm, spicy, woody and camphoraceous scent that can provide a vast array of benefits, such as:

Analgesic: Helps alleviate pain related to colds, fevers, inflammation and headache.

Antiseptic: Applying the essential oil on wounds can help prevent them from becoming infected and developing tetanus.

Antibacterial: Helps kill bacteria that may cause various skin and digestive infections.

Carminative: Can help solve digestive problems such as flatulence by relaxing the muscles in the abdominal region.

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Diuretic: Can help increase your frequency and quantity of urination, thereby helping improve your ability to eject excess water and harmful toxins from your body.

USES FOR MARJORAM LEAF

Marinades: Upgrade the taste of your marinated meat and fish dishes by adding it to the marinade.

Roasted meats: it can add an herbal aroma to roasted meats, such as chicken.

Sautéed vegetables: Side dishes such as sautéed vegetables become more flavorful with a dash of marjoram.

Soups: It gives vegetable soups more flavor.

Teas: in medicinal amounts for short periods of time to alleviate symptoms of cold and flu

DOSAGE

The typical oral dose of marjoram is one to two cups of the tea daily. Prepare the tea by steeping one to two teaspoons of the flower or leaf in one cup of boiling water for five minutes, and then strain. Marjoram can also be used as a poultice or mouthwash; consult with your physician for appropriate concentrations.

Child Dosage: Children should avoid it in amounts larger than those typically used in culinary applications.

SIDE EFFECTS & SAFETY

Marjoram is LIKELY SAFE in food amounts and POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth in medicinal amounts for short periods of time.

It is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when used long-term. There is some concern that marjoram could harm the liver and kidneys or cause cancer if used long-term.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: It is POSSIBLY UNSAFE to use marjoram in medicinal amounts if you are pregnant. It might start your period, and that could threaten the pregnancy. Not enough is known about the safety of using it in medicinal amounts if you are breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Children: Do not give marjoram to children in medicinal amounts. It is POSSIBLY UNSAFE for them.

Bleeding disorders: Taking medicinal amounts of marjoram might slow clotting and increase the chances of bruising and bleeding in people with bleeding disorders.

Allergy to basil, hyssop, lavender, mint, oregano, and sage: it can cause allergic reactions in people allergic to these plants and other members of the Lamiaceae family of plants.

Surgery: Taking medicinal amounts of marjoram might increase the risk of bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using marjoram medicinally at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Lithium interacts with MARJORAM: it might have an effect like a water pill or “diuretic.” Taking marjoram might decrease how well the body gets rid of lithium. This could increase how much lithium is in the body and result in serious side effects. Talk with your healthcare provider before using this product if you are taking lithium. Your lithium dose might need to be changed.

RECIPES

Spicy Roast Chicken With Tomatoes and Marjoram

Ingredients:

  • 24 ounces of cherry tomatoes (about 4 cups), stemmed
  • 1/4 cup of coconut oil
  • 5 garlic cloves, pressed
  • 1 1/4 teaspoons of dried crushed red pepper
  • 2 Tbsp. of chopped fresh marjoram
  • 4 pasture-raised chicken breast halves with ribs
  • Himalayan salt and freshly ground pepper, to taste

Procedure:

  1. Preheat the oven to 450 degrees Fahrenheit.
  2. Toss the tomatoes, coconut oil, garlic, crushed red pepper and 1 tablespoon of marjoram in a large bowl.
  3. Place the chicken slices on a rimmed baking sheet.
  4. Pour the mixture over the chickens, while arranging the tomatoes in a single layer on a sheet around the chickens.
  5. Sprinkle the chicken slices generously with salt and pepper.
  6. Roast until the chicken slices are cooked through and the tomatoes are blistered, for about 35 minutes.
  7. Transfer the chickens to plates.
  8. Spoon the tomatoes and juices over.
  9. Sprinkle the plates with the remaining 1 tablespoon of marjoram and serve.

References:

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marjoram
  2. https://www.planttherapy.com/marjoram-sweet-essential-oil?v=256
  3. https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-563/marjoram
  4. https://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/721189/ORIGANUM_MAJORANA_%28SWEET_MARJORAM%29_LEAF_OIL/
  5. https://www.britannica.com/plant/marjoram
  6. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/marjoram
  7. http://www.ejpmr.com/admin/assets/article_issue/1454479607.pdf
  8. https://articles.mercola.com/herbs-spices/marjoram.aspx
  9. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292161091_Origanum_majorana_L_-Phyto-pharmacological_review
  10. https://plantvillage.psu.edu/topics/marjoram/infos
  11. http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/CropOp/en/herbs/culinary/orega.html
  12. https://www.oils4life.co.uk/5ml-Marjoram-ORGANICessential-oil-Sweet-Origanum-Majorana-Leaf-Oil
  13. https://www.aromaweb.com/essential-oils/marjoram-oil.asp
  14. https://www.drweil.com/vitamins-supplements-herbs/herbs/marjoram/
  15. http://www.lindbergnutrition.com/ns/DisplayMonograph.asp?StoreID=1c7a08050b8f4419bffba945004ca5d1&DocID=bottomline-marjoram
  16. https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/origanum/majorana/
  17. http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=d828
  18. https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Marjoram+leaf+(Origanum+majorana)&hl=en&as_sdt=0&as_vis=1&oi=scholart
  19. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30217790
  20. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30210537
  21. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30205180
  22. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30138756
  23. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29747749

Lavender Oil

Lavender Essential Oil (Lavandula angustifolia/officinalis)

Lavender is perhaps the most well-known of the essential oils and for good reason. Lavender essential oil is renowned for its many beneficial properties, including promoting calm, relaxation, and being a nervous tension reliever. It can also be added to a carrier oil to help reduce the appearance of scars and wrinkles and help soothe alterations in skin integrity, such as during sun exposure or a minor cooking burn.

Early and modern aromatherapy texts advocate for lavender’s use as an antibacterial essential oil. The leaves and stems of the plant were used to prepare decoctions against digestive system diseases and rheumatism, and lavender was valued for its cosmetic purposes. The Romans used lavender oil for bathing, cooking and purifying the air. And in the Bible, lavender oil was among the aromatics used for anointing and healing.

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You will find Lavender essential oil in many of Mother Jai’s products.

The proven health benefits of lavender essential oil include its ability to reduce stress and anxiety, eliminate nervous tension, relieve pain, disinfect the scalp and skin, prevent acne, enhance blood circulation, and treat respiratory problems. Lavender oil is used extensively in aromatherapy and works as a natural sleep aid. Its potent antibacterial nature makes it a wonderful household cleanser and deodorant.

Lavender essential oil is extracted from the flowers of the lavender plant (Lavandula angustifolia), primarily through steam distillation. Lavender flowers are known for their calming fragrance and have been used for making potpourri for centuries. The Latin name of lavender is Lavare, which means “to wash”. This is because lavender flowers and lavender essential oil have been used since ancient times by the Romans, Persians, Greeks, and Egyptians as a bath additive and perfume.

Lavender essential oil is a pure oil and differs from certain commercial lavender oils which may be diluted and are often sold as perfumes. Lavender perfume and body sprays are popular due to their fresh and floral scent. On the other hand, pure lavender essential oil is frequently used in various forms including as an aromatherapy oil, in gels, infusions, lotions, soaps, baby products, and candles. It is also used to make tea, lemonades, syrups, aromatic beverages, and in baked dishes.

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Lavender (scientific name Lavandula angustifolia) is commonly contaminated with related species, including Lavandula hybrida, which is a cross between Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula latifolia, from which lavandin oil is obtained.

PARTS USED: Flowering tops

EXTRACTION METHOD: Water-steam distilled

NOTE CLASSIFICATION: Middle

AROMA: Sweet, floral, herbaceous

BLENDS WELL WITH: Bergamot, Black Pepper, Cedar Atlas, Chamomile, Clary Sage, Clove Bud, Cypress, Eucalyptus, Geranium, Grapefruit, Juniper Berry, Cistus / Labdanum, Lemon, Lemongrass, Mandarin, Sweet Marjoram, Oakmoss Absolute, Palmarosa, Patchouli, Peppermint, Pine, Ravensara aromatica, Rose, Rosemary, Tea Tree, Thyme, and Vetivert.

Major Constituents of Bulgarian Lavender Essential Oil: Linalyl acetate, Linalool, (Z)-B-Ocimene, Lavandulyl acetate, Terpinene-4-ol, B-Caryophyllene, (E)-B-Farnesene, (E)-B-Ocimene, 3-Octanyl acetate, etc. See Essential Oil Safety for constituent breakdown for oils distilled from Lavender angustifolia grown in other regions.

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[E. Schmidt, The Characteristics of Lavender Oils from Eastern Europe. (Perfumer & Flavorist 28, 2003), 48-60. Source cited in Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young, Essential Oil Safety (Second Edition. United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2014), 326.]

BENEFITS & USES OF LAVENDER ESSENTIAL OIL

Acne, allergies, anxiety, asthma, athlete’s foot, bruises, burns, chicken pox, colic, cuts, cystitis, depression, dermatitis, dysmenorrhea, earache, flatulence, headache, hypertension, insect bites, insect repellent, itching, labor pains, migraine, oily skin, rheumatism, scabies, scars, sores, sprains, strains, stress, stretch marks, vertigo, whooping cough. [Julia Lawless, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils (Rockport, MA: Element Books, 1995), 56-67.]

Aids in Digestion: Lavender oil is useful for digestion because it increases the mobility of food within the intestine. The oil also stimulates the production of gastric juices and bile, thus aiding in the treatment of indigestion, stomach pain, colic, flatulence, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Air Freshener: The same way you use lavender oil as a perfume, you can use it around your home as a natural, toxic-free air freshener. Either spray lavender oil around your home or try diffusing it. To create a relaxing atmosphere in your bedroom before you fall asleep, try spraying the lavender oil and water mixture directly onto your bed sheets or pillow.

Anti-bacterial: Regular use of lavender essential oil provides resistance to a variety of diseases. Lavender has antibacterial and antiviral qualities that make it perfect for defending the body against rare diseases like TB, typhoid, and diphtheria, according to early research in the 20th century.

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Antidepressant: Some research shows that lavender aromatherapy reduces depression after childbirth in some women.

Antioxidant Protection: Free radicals, like toxins, chemicals and pollutants, are arguably the most dangerous and most common risk factor for every disease that affects Americans today. Free radicals are responsible for shutting down your immune system and can cause unbelievable damage to your body. Thankfully, lavender essential oil is a natural antioxidant that works to prevent and reverse disease

Bug Repellent: The smell of lavender essential oil is potent for many types of bugs like mosquitoes, midges, and moths. Apply some lavender oil on the exposed skin when outside to prevent these irritating bites. Furthermore, if you do happen to be bitten by one of those bugs, lavender essential oil has anti-inflammatory qualities that will reduce the irritation and the pain associated with bug bites.

Chemical Free Lip Balm: Lavender oil is excellent for preventing sunburns on the lips and also healing chapped, dried lips. Try adding a couple of drops of oil to shea butter, jojoba oil, coconut oil or another “carrier oil” and then rubbing it into your lips for protection whenever you will be in the sun.

Colic Relief in Babies: through its pain relieving and anti-anxiety benefits, babies with colic experience calming relief when applied to the feet or diffused in the room. Results from one small study show that massaging a combination of lavender and almond oils onto the belly of infants for 5-15 minutes at the onset of colic reduces crying time by about 7 hours per week.

Complementary Cancer Therapy: A 2012 study published in the African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines shows that aromatherapy, particularly using lavender oil, helps patients with cancer cope with stress, nausea, chronic pain and depression. Because lavender oil works to stimulate the immune system, boost mood, improve sleep and fight stress, it can be used as a therapeutic agent.

There is a significant research on the effects of lavender, in combination with other essential oils, as a way to prevent the occurrence of breast cancer in mice. This could be an indication of an increased chance of lavender battling carcinogenic effects and the presence of cancer.

Massaging lavender oil into the back of your neck, chest, wrists and temples can induce relaxing and calming effects. If you are experiencing muscle or joint pain, or pain at the site of injections, apply 2–3 drops of lavender to the affected area.

Dementia Support: because lavender improves circulation and has strong antioxidant benefits the chances of developing dementia are reduced. It can also help to improve events and their longevity when patients have dementia. Some research shows that using lavender oil in a diffuser at night reduces agitation in people with dementia.

Diabetes Natural Treatment:  In a nutshell, lavender essential oil treatment protected the body from the following diabetes symptoms:

  • Increased blood glucose (the hallmark of diabetes)
  • Metabolic disorders (especially fat metabolism)
  • Weight gain
  • Liver and kidney antioxidant depletion
  • Liver and kidney dysfunction
  • Liver and kidney lipoperoxidation (when free radicals “steal” necessary fat molecules from cell membranes)

Ear Infections: Early research shows that administering ear drops containing lavender and other herbal extracts improves ear pain in people with ear infections. However, this herbal combination does not appear to be more effective than using a skin-numbing agent along with the antibiotic amoxicillin.

Fall Prevention: There is some evidence that attaching a pad with lavender oil onto the neckline of clothing reduces the risk of falling by 43% in nursing home residents.

Flavor Booster: Lavender is a great flavor enhancer in things like grain-free muffins, teas and even salad dressings. Lavender oil is completely edible, but you will want to use a very small amount since the taste is very powerful. You’ll also want to purchase only a high-quality, 100 percent pure grade oil from a reputable company.

Heals Cuts & Burns: Widely known for its antimicrobial properties, for centuries lavender oil has been used to prevent various infections and combat bacterial and fungal disorders. Research shows that lavender oil speeds the healing of burns, cuts, scrapes and wounds — and a big part of this is because of its antimicrobial compounds.

A study published in Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine evaluated how lavender’s antimicrobial ability is enhanced when it’s blended with other essential oils, like clove, cinnamon and tea tree oil. Researchers found that a 1:1 ratio of these oils was found to be the most effective in fighting against Candida albicans and Staph aureus — two common causes of many fungal and bacterial infections that lead to respiratory pneumonia and skin funguses.

A 2016 study conducted on rats found that lavender oil promoted wound healing in the early phase by accelerating the formation of granulation tissue (tissue from the healing surface of the skin) and promoting collagen synthesis. The area of wounds treated with lavender oil was significantly decreased compared to the control group.

Healthy Skin & Hair: Most likely due to its antimicrobial and antioxidant characteristics, lavender essential oil mixed with a carrier oil (like coconut, sunflower, or grapeseed oil) has profound benefits on your skin. Using lavender oil topically can help to improve a number of skin conditions, from canker sores to allergic reactions, acne and age spots. Its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties help to ease skin conditions and reverse signs of aging.

Studies also show that lavender oil, along with other essential oils like thyme, rosemary and cedarwood, can significantly improve alopecia areata and hair loss when massaged into the scalp daily.

Improves Blood Circulation: Lavender essential oil is also good for improving the circulation of blood in the body. Researchers from the Department of Cardiovascular Science and Medicine, Chiba University in Japan suggests that aromatherapy using lavender oil has beneficial effects on coronary circulation. It also lowers blood pressure and is often used as a treatment for hypertension. This means that not only do the organs increase their levels of oxygenation, promoting muscle strength and health, but brain activity can have a noticeable boost, skin remains bright and flushed with blood, and the body is protected from the risks of heart attack and atherosclerosis often associated with poor blood circulation.

Early research shows that using an essential oil mixture of lavender, lemon, and ylang ylang as aromatherapy might reduce systolic blood pressure (the top number) but not diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) in people with high blood pressure.

Induces Sleep: Because of lavender oil’s sedative and calming properties, it works to improve sleep and treat insomnia. A 2015 study involving 158 mothers in their postpartum period were divided into the control or intervention group. The intervention group inhaled lavender oil before bed four times a week for eight weeks. The women using lavender oil displayed a significant improvement in sleep quality when compared to the control group.

Early research shows that using lavender oil in a vaporizer overnight, or on a gauze pad left beside the bed, might help some people with mild insomnia sleep better.

A mixture of lavender oil, Roman chamomile essential oil and magnesium oil is the best combination for improving sleep. Just rub this mixture into the back of your neck and wrists to induce a calm, peaceful feeling.

Lice Deterrent: it has been shown to be very effective on lice, lice eggs, and nits.

Mouth Sores: Research shows that applying 2 drops of lavender oil to the affected area three times daily can reduce canker sore swelling and pain and shorten the time it takes for canker sores to heal.

Natural Perfume: Do you want to smell good without using toxic perfumes? Lavender oil is a great scent for both women and men. You can either try adding pure oil directly to your skin, or you can dilute oil in water or with a carrier oil for a more subtle scent.

If you’d like to rub the oil right onto your skin, try adding 2–3 drops into your palms and then rubbing your hands together. Then rub the oil directly onto your skin or hair. You can also try using 2 drops of lavender oil added to a spray bottle with about ½ cup of water. Shake up the spray bottle and then spray whatever you’d like.

Neuroprotective Effect: A study published in Brain Research (February 2014) showed that lavender oil has the potential to reduce brain edema and improve functional ability in people affected by cerebral ischemia. While lavender has traditionally been used in many cosmetic and therapeutic applications due to medicinal properties, this study confirms that lavender oil has potent neuroprotective properties. Furthermore, the oil helps increase antioxidant capacity in the body and inhibits oxidative stress.

Promotes Wound Healing: Lavender essential oil is an excellent essential oil to have on hand as it helps treat minor cuts, bruises, and burns. According to a 2016 study published in the BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine journal, the essential oil boosts the synthesis of collagen and heals skin tissues. Just rub a few drops of lavender essential oil on the bruised area or on burns to increase blood circulation and healing. It can also be used to soothe skin irritations, razor bumps, and sunburn.

Relieves Headaches: It’s one of the best essential oils for headaches because it induces relaxation and relieves tension. It works as a sedative, anti-anxiety, anticonvulsant and calming agent. According to a study published in European Neurology, people struggling with migraine headaches saw a significant reduction in pain when they inhaled lavender oil for 15 minutes.

Relieves Pain: Lavender essential oil is known as an excellent remedy for various types of pains including those caused by sore and tense muscles, muscular aches, rheumatism, sprains, backache, and lumbago.

Several studies have found that lavender oil helps as a natural painkiller. Simply rubbing lavender into the area of concern can reduce inflammation and pain intensity, helping to alleviate the symptoms of many health conditions.

Another study, published in the Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, found that a combination of lavender, marjoram, peppermint and black pepper essential oils improved neck pain when applied to the affected area daily.

And yet another recent study proved that lavender oil, when massaged into the skin, can help to relieve dysmenorrhea, which is associated with menstrual pain and cramping in the lower abdomen. The results of this study suggest that lavender oil can be used as a natural remedy for PMS and menstrual cramps.

Relieves Stress & Anxiety:  In 2013, an evidence-based study published by the International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice found that supplementing with 80 milligram capsules of lavender essential oil alleviates anxiety, sleep disturbance and depression. Additionally, in the study there were no adverse side effects, drug interactions or withdrawal symptoms from using lavender oil.

The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology published a human study in 2014 that revealed that Silexan (otherwise known as lavender oil preparation) was more effective against generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) than placebos and the prescription medicine paroxetine. After treatment, the study found zero instances of withdrawal symptoms or adverse side effects.

Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS): One study shows that massaging the legs with lavender oil for 10 minutes twice weekly can reduce the severity of restless legs syndrome in people with kidney failure who are undergoing dialysis.

Stimulates Urine Flow: Lavender essential oil is good for urinary disorders because of its stimulating effect on urine production. Furthermore, it helps in restoring hormonal balance and reducing cystitis or inflammation of the urinary bladder. It also reduces associated cramps with these and other disorders.

Stomach Discomfort: Many people find the scent of lavender to be soothing to the stomach. If you are feeling nauseous or know that you are going to be traveling in a car of plane and are prone to motion sickness, spray some lavender oil on your skin and clothes, or rub it into your temples, next and palms.

Supports Brain Function: Research also shows that lavender oil serves as a natural treatment for Alzheimer’s disease! Studies conducted on rats show that inhaling lavender essential oil vapor can help to prevent brain oxidative stress and improve cognitive impairment.

Also, in 2012, the Swiss journal Molecules printed the results of a study that shockingly proved that lavender oil is a viable treatment option for neurological dysfunctions such as stroke. Researchers believe that lavender’s neuroprotective effects are due to its antioxidant properties.

Treats Acne: Pure lavender essential oil inhibits the bacteria that cause the initial acne infection, helps to regulate the over-excretion of sebum by hormonal manipulation and can reduce the signs of scarring after the acne has begun to heal. Adding a small amount of lavender essential oil to other skin creams or ointments can greatly increase the potential for relief and healing.

Treats Eczema: Premium organic lavender oil is used to treat various skin disorders such as acne, wrinkles, psoriasis, and other inflammatory conditions. It is commonly used to speed up the healing process of wounds, cuts, burns, and sunburns because it improves the formation of scar tissues. It is also added to chamomile to treat eczema.

Treats Respiratory Disorders: Lavender oil is widely used for various respiratory problems including throat infection, flu, cough, cold, asthma, sinus congestion, bronchitis, whooping cough, laryngitis, and tonsillitis. It can be put in in an aromatherapy essential oil diffuser or alternatively, it can be topically applied to the skin of neck, chest, and back. It is also added to many vaporizers and inhalers that are commonly used for cold and cough. The stimulating nature of lavender essential oil can also loosen up the phlegm and relieve congestion associated with respiratory conditions, thus speeding up the recovery process and helping the body naturally eliminate phlegm and other unwanted material. The vapor of lavender essential oil also has antibacterial qualities which can battle respiratory tract infections.

LAVENDER ESSENTIAL OIL SIDE EFFECTS & PRECAUTIONS

For most people, lavender oil benefits are all that you’ll experience and using lavender oil is completely safe; however, there has not been an extensive amount of scientific research done on lavender oil interactions with other medications, or for its use in pregnant women, so there are certain situations where you will want to use caution.

Medication Interactions: If you are already taking any prescription medication for sleep-related disorders or for depression, be cautious of the fact that lavender can increase the effectiveness of these medications. Even if you use an over-the-counter sleep aid or any type of sedatives (even cough or flu medicine), keep in mind that lavender makes many people sleepy and even somewhat drowsy, so it’s best to not combine lavender oil with other medications or sleep-related supplements. If you are planning on undergoing anesthesia in the near future, you will also want to avoid using lavender oil.

Pregnant Women: Lavender oil is generally considered safe for women who are pregnant and nursing. Because it can have a relaxing effect on muscles and can also affect hormone levels, use lavender with caution in your third trimester. It’s best to speak with your doctor about use of any essential oils when pregnant, since it has not been guaranteed that these are safe at this time.

Children: Lavender oil is considered generally safe for children to use, although there is some concern that lavender’s effect on hormone levels could be harmful for boys who have not yet gone through puberty. Although there isn’t strong evidence for lavender being a hormone disrupter (only 1–2 very small studies were ever completed), parents are told to use caution if using lavender oil frequently on young children.

Ingesting Lavender Oil: Studies have primarily looked at the effects of using lavender oil topically on the skin or through inhalation. There have been no negative symptoms found when three drops of oil are mixed with a carrier oil and applied directly to the skin. A 2013 evidence-based article, however, highlighted that lavender can be ingested at a large dose of 80 to 160 milligrams without adverse effects, except for minor gastrointestinal symptoms. To avoid gastrointestinal irritation, keep internal use to a minimum and be careful if you have a sensitive digestive system. There are no known food interactions of lavender oil at this time.

References:

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  24. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25192562
  25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4325408/
  26. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3746639/
  27. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3804257/
  28. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ptr.1103/abstract
  29. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24384140
  30. https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/essential-oils/health-benefits-of-lavender-essential-oil.html
  31. https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-838/lavender
  32. https://draxe.com/lavender-oil-benefits/

10X Pure Gold CBD

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Ginger Root

Fresh ginger

Ginger Root (Zingiber officinale)

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a folk medicine. Ginger is in the family Zingiberaceae, to which also belong turmeric (Curcuma longa), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), and galangal. Ginger originated in the tropical rainforests from the Indian subcontinent to Southern Asia where ginger plants show considerable genetic variation. As one of the first spices exported from the Orient, ginger arrived in Europe during the spice trade, and was used by ancient Greeks and Romans. The distantly related dicots in the genus Asarum are commonly called wild ginger because of their similar taste.

Fresh ginger

Other Common Names: Jamaican ginger, Indian Ginger, gan-jiang, sheng-jiang, African ginger, black ginger, zingiber officinale.

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The English origin of the word, “ginger”, is from the mid-14th century, from Old English gingifer, from Medieval Latin gingiber, from Greek zingiberis, from Prakrit (Middle Indic) singabera, from Sanskrit srngaveram, from srngam “horn” and vera- “body”, from the shape of its root. The word probably was readopted in Middle English from Old French gingibre (modern French gingembre).

Ginger root and powder

Ginger Nutrition

Raw ginger is composed of 79% water, 18% carbohydrates, 2% protein, and 1% fat (table). In 100 grams (a standard amount used to compare with other foods), raw ginger supplies 80 Calories and contains moderate amounts of vitamin B6 (12% of the Daily Value, DV) and the dietary minerals, magnesium (12% DV) and manganese (11% DV), but otherwise is low in nutrient content. When used as a spice powder in a common serving amount of one US tablespoon (5 grams), ground dried ginger (9% water) provides negligible content of essential nutrients, with the exception of manganese (70% DV).

100 grams (about 3.5 ounces) of raw ginger contains approximately (3):

  • 80 calories
  • 17.8 grams carbohydrates
  • 1.8 grams protein
  • 0.7 grams fat
  • 2 grams dietary fiber
  • 415 milligrams potassium (12 percent DV)
  • 0.2 milligrams copper (11 percent DV)
  • 0.2 milligrams manganese (11 percent DV)
  • 43 milligrams magnesium (11 percent DV)
  • 5 milligrams vitamin C (8 percent DV)
  • 0.2 milligrams vitamin B6 (8 percent DV)
  • 0.7 milligrams niacin (4 percent DV)
  • 34 milligrams phosphorus (3 percent DV)
  • 0.6 milligrams iron (3 percent DV)

In addition to the nutrients listed above, ginger also contains a small amount of calcium, zinc, pantothenic acid, riboflavin and thiamin. However, keep in mind that most people consume a very small portion of ginger, so it should be combined with a variety of other nutrient-dense foods to meet your micronutrient needs.

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Ginger tea

Benefits of Using Ginger Root

Ginger has been used for in cooking and traditional medicine for thousands of years. It is currently one of the most widely used herbs worldwide.

  • It has been used traditionally for a long time to treat nausea. Scientific evidence confirms its uses as an herbal remedy for nausea and related ailments such as morning sickness and motion sickness.
  • Several studies have found that ginger could help prevent the formation of stomach ulcers. In fact, one 2011 animal study showed that ginger powder protected against aspirin-induced stomach ulcers by decreasing levels of inflammatory proteins and blocking the activity of enzymes related to ulcer development.
  • Ginger contains many anti-fungal compounds which make it a popular herb for treating athlete’s foot. Fungal infections cause a wide variety of conditions, from yeast infections to jock itch and athlete’s foot. Fortunately, ginger has powerful anti-fungal properties that can safely and successfully help kill off disease-causing fungi.
  • The health benefits of ginger are largely due to its antioxidants, anti-inflammatory properties and content of therapeutic compounds like gingerol, shogaol, paradol and zingerone. Studies have shown that ginger root inhibits the production of cytokines, which promote inflammation. Therefore, the traditional Indian use for treating inflammation is gaining new-found popularity.
  • Some of the other traditional Asian uses for this herb include stimulating the appetite, promoting perspiration, and fighting body odor.
  • It has been used to treat pain and traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicinal uses include ginger root in herbal arthritis treatment. Treatment of joint pain, especially those conditions caused by poor circulation, is another popular use of this herb.
  • Heart health is another benefit of ginger use. It has been shown to slow the production of LDL and triglycerides in the liver and prevent the clotting and aggregation of platelets in the blood vessels, associated with atherosclerosis and blood clots.
  • One of the most impressive benefits of ginger is its anti-cancer properties, thanks to the presence of a powerful compound called 6-gingerol. Test-tube studies show that ginger and its components may be effective in blocking cancer cell growth and development for ovarian, pancreatic and prostate cancer. However, more research is needed to determine how the anti-cancer properties of ginger may translate to humans.
  • Unfortunately, adverse side effects like pain, period cramps and headaches are commonly associated with menstruation for many women. While some turn to over-the-counter medications to provide symptom relief, natural remedies like ginger can be just as useful at easing menstrual pain.
  • The root has also been used to treat some of the symptoms of common cold and flu such as loosening phlegm and treating chills. During cold weather, drinking ginger tea is good way to keep warm. It is diaphoretic, which means that it promotes sweating, working to warm the body from within. To make ginger tea at home, slice 20 to 40 grams (g) of fresh ginger and steep it in a cup of hot water. Adding a slice of lemon or a drop of honey adds flavor and additional benefits, including vitamin C and antibacterial properties.

Ginger for Your Skin and Hair (GingerParrot.co.uk)

Here are our favorite Ten Beauty Benefits of Ginger for Skin and Hair – they’re all reasons to eat ginger every day!

  1. Anti-ageing: Redheads are well-versed in the importance of wearing SPF to protect the skin from the sun, the biggest influence of the appearance of ageing. But eating ginger can also help fight wrinkles! The food is packed with the super-foodiness of anti-oxidants, which reduce toxins in skin cells while increasing blood circulation, helping to reduce the appearance of ageing.
  2. Blemishes and Acne: Not only is ginger great for anti-ageing, it can also help with spots and imperfections. Ginger contains powerful antiseptic and cleansing qualities, minimizing the rate of spot and acne formation by actively killing bacteria on the skin’s surface and deep inside the pores. And sensitive-skinned redheads will be pleased to know that ginger is the best natural acne-fighting solution, so it’s great for those with delicate skin.
  3. Soothes burns and blisters: Probably not wise to apply immediately after a new burn, but your skin has cooled, fresh ginger juice is said to soothe and heal blisters, burnt skin or sunburn.
  4. Radiant skin: As odd as it sounds, slices of ginger root applied to your face can help to give you a refreshing glow. We agree that it doesn’t sound too glamourous, so perhaps try it when you’re home alone.
  5. Skin toning: While cleaning, fighting blemishes and making your skin more radiant, ginger also gets to work on toning your skin. A face mask is an ideal method for this. Try mixing grated ginger with a natural mask mix (or store-bought); it’ll help to moisturize and soften the skin, leaving it supple and glowing.
  6. Hypopigmental (white) scars: If you have scarred areas that are slightly lighter in pigmentation than the rest of your skin, a piece of fresh ginger can help. For noticeable results, hold a sliver of fresh ginger on the white scar for 30-40 minutes. This should be done every day for at least a week, at which point you should start seeing the color come back to your skin.
  7. Reduces hair loss: Ginger root makes your ginger roots stronger! Thus reducing hair loss, something we obviously want to prevent – keep living the ginger dream!
  8. Stimulates hair growth: Not only does ginger reduce hair loss, but it increases blood circulation to the scalp, also making hair silky and shiny at the same time.
  9. Fights dandruff: Ginger contains natural antiseptic properties which help to fight dandruff issues.
  10. Split ends: With its anti-oxidants, ginger can seriously help to repair any split ends and dry hair problems. Mix some ginger oil with your shampoo and watch how its natural moisturizing powers help to fix any dryness.
Ginger and lemon tea

Therapeutic Dosages

Ginger is available in fresh or dried root, tablets, capsules, powder, tincture, and tea forms. Customary daily dosages are:

Fresh Ginger Root: 1/3 of an ounce of fresh ginger root daily. This can be taken in tea form or used in baking or other herbal uses. Take five to six thin slices of fresh ginger and steep it in hot water for thirty minutes to make a fresh ginger tea.

Dried Ginger Root: 150 to 300 milligrams of the dried root can be taken three times daily in capsule or powder form.

It may also be used to make tea. A teaspoonful of the dried powder may be added to a pint of hot water and steeped for 30 minutes to make the tea.

Tablets and capsules generally come in 150 mg to 500 mg doses.

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Ginger tea

Potential Side Effects of Using Ginger

Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash. Although generally recognized as safe, ginger can cause heartburn and other side effects, particularly if taken in powdered form. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage, and individuals who have had ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger. It can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones and may interfere with the effects of anticoagulants, such as warfarin or aspirin.

  • Pregnant women should be careful with ginger due to its potential to cause uterine contractions.
  • It has also been shown to interfere with the absorption of dietary iron and fat-soluble vitamins.
  • Stomach upset is a common side effect with larger doses. It may potentiate the effects of blood thinners, barbiturates, beta-blockers, insulin, and other diabetes medications.
  • Due to the blood thinning effect, it should not be used before surgery.
Ginger and lemon

Benefits Of Lemon Ginger Tea: health benefits of this unusual infusion!

Treats Nausea & Indigestion – Ginger has a very powerful active ingredient, named zingiber, which is able to eliminate bacterial pathogens that often attack the stomach and compromise digestive function. Ginger is also known to soothe nausea and eliminate vomiting while promoting more effective digestion and nutrient absorption. Lemon, on the other hand, is closely linked to reducing indigestion and heartburn!

Improves Cognitive Function – Lemon and ginger help in improving concentration and cognition. Fortunately, both of these ingredients are also excellent at soothing nerves and improving mood, which means clear thinking, while the antioxidant effects mean less oxidative stress and a lower chance of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.

Skin Care – The high vitamin content of lemon and ginger, combined with their numerous antioxidants, make this infusion an excellent option for improving the skin health. You can drink this tea or even apply it topically to irritated patches of skin. Antioxidants help to reduce oxidative stress in the skin and promote the growth of new cells, while the antibacterial and antiviral nature of this beverage protects the skin from infections.

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Weight Loss – Ginger is well known to stimulate the metabolism and can also help to satiate feelings of hunger. Therefore, a glass of lemon ginger tea in the morning can help those who are trying to lose weight, primarily by adding extra calorie-burning to their day and suppressing the desire to snack between meals.

Hair Care – Lemon and ginger have both been used independently for hair health for centuries, but this tea is high in vitamin A and C, both of which are linked to improve hair growth, and a reduce dry skin and dandruff. This can strengthen your hair and give it a luscious appearance.

Boosts Immunity – Both lemon and ginger are known around the world as immune system aids, so it makes sense that lemon ginger tea can comprehensively protect you from pathogens and illness. When you are suffering from a cold or flu, simply drink 1-2 cups of this tea each day and quickly see an improvement in your symptoms and a reduction in irritation of your respiratory tracts.

Controls Diabetes – When it comes to blood sugar regulation, few things are as effective as ginger. By optimizing the release of insulin and blood sugar in your body, you can prevent the dangerous spikes and drops in blood sugar that can lead to diabetes or can affect someone already diagnosed with this condition.

Relieves Pain – The natural anti-inflammatory nature of ginger not only reduces irritation, swelling, and inflammation in the body but can also function as an analgesic. This tea can help you recover from body pain, menstrual cramps, illness, and surgeries.

Improves Mood – Aside from this infusion’s effect on concentration and cognitive function, lemon and ginger are also known as mood boosters. There is a good reason why lemon is so commonly used in aromatherapy approaches, while ginger is known to relieve tension and lower stress hormone levels in the body, which can definitely make you feel happier and more in control of your emotions.

Side Effects Of Lemon Ginger Tea – Some people suffer from heartburn or stomach upset when they drink this beverage, which could be the response of a sensitive stomach to ginger’s powerful active ingredients or even a ginger allergy. Speak to your doctor or allergist before making any major changes to your diet or health regimen.

References:

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ginger
  2. https://www.herbal-supplement-resource.com/ginger-root.html
  3. http://nccih.nih.gov/health/ginger/
  4. http://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:798372-1
  5. http://bja.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/84/3/367
  6. https://draxe.com/10-medicinal-ginger-health-benefits/
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21753209
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16117605
  9. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/star.19820340203
  10. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09712119.2011.558612
  11. https://journals.humankinetics.com/doi/abs/10.1123/ijatt.2014-0142
  12. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228476601_Chemical_composition_and_antioxidant_properties_of_ginger_root_Zingiber_officinale
  13. http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1380710823_Shirin%20and%20Jamuna.pdf
  14. http://www.jafs.com.pl/Effects-of-dose-and-adaptation-time-of-ginger-root-Zingiber-officinale-on-rumen-fermentation,66200,0,2.html
  15. https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/herbs-and-spices/ginger.html
  16. https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/life-science/nutrition-research/learning-center/plant-profiler/zingiber-officinale.html
  17. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/265990.php
  18. https://wellnessmama.com/7958/ginger-root/
  19. https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-961/ginger
  20. https://gingerparrot.co.uk/ten-beauty-benefits-of-ginger-for-your-hair-and-skin/
  21. https://www.livestrong.com/article/73965-cleanse-face-skin-ginger/

Feverfew

CC BY 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=216947

Feverfew leaf (Tanacetum parthenium)

Feverfew is a flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae. It is a traditional medicinal herb which is commonly used to prevent migraine headaches and is also occasionally grown for ornament. It is also commonly seen in the literature by its synonyms, Chrysanthemum parthenium and Pyrethrum parthenium. It is also sometimes referred to as bachelor’s buttons or feverfew.

The name stems from the Latin word febrifugia, “fever reducer.” The first-century Greek physician Dioscorides prescribed feverfew for “all hot inflammations.” The ancient Greeks called the herb “Parthenium,” supposedly because it was used medicinally to save the life of someone who had fallen from the Parthenon during its construction in the 5th century BC. The first-century Greek physician Dioscorides used feverfew as an antipyretic. Feverfew also was known as “medieval aspirin” or the “aspirin” of the 18th century.

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Common names: Chrysanthemum parthenium , Feverfew, featherfew, altamisa, bachelor’s button, featherfoil, febrifuge plant, midsummer daisy, nosebleed, Santa Maria, wild chamomile, wild quinine, chamomile grande, chrysanthemum atricaire, federfoy, flirtwort, Leucanthemum parthenium, Matricaria capensis, Matricaria eximia hort, Matricaria parthenium L., MIG-99, mother herb, Parthenium hysterophorus, parthenolide, Pyrenthrum parthenium L, European feverfew, feather-fully, feddygen fenyw, flirtroot, grande chamomile, mutterkraut, and vetter-voo.

Feverfew is native to Eurasia, specifically the Balkan Peninsula, Anatolia and the Caucasus, but cultivation has spread it around the world and it is now also found in the rest of Europe, North America and Chile.

Uses: The plant has been used to treat arthritis, asthma, constipation, dermatitis, earache, fever, headache, inflammatory conditions, insect bites, labor, menstrual disorders, potential miscarriage, psoriasis, spasms, stomach ache, swelling, tinnitus, toothache, vertigo, and worms. Feverfew also has been used as an abortifacient, as an insecticide, and for treating coughs and colds. Traditionally, the herb has been used as an antipyretic, from which its common name is derived.

History: In Central and South America, the plant has been used to treat a variety of disorders. The Kallaway Indians of the Andes mountains value its use for treating colic, kidney pain, morning sickness, and stomach ache. Costa Ricans use a decoction of the herb to aid digestion, as a cardiotonic, an emmenagogue, and as an enema for worms. In Mexico, it is used as an antispasmodic and as a tonic to regulate menstruation. In Venezuela, it is used for treating earaches.

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The leaves are ingested fresh or dried, with a typical daily dose of 2–3 leaves. The bitterness is often sweetened before ingestion. Feverfew also has been planted around houses to purify the air because of its strong, lasting odor, and a tincture of its blossoms is used as an insect repellant and balm for bites. It has been used as an antidote for overindulgence in opium.

Properties: It has multiple pharmacologic properties, such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, antispasmodic, an emmenagogue, and as an enema for worms.

The plant contains a large number of natural products, but the active principles probably include one or more of the sesquiterpene lactones known to be present, including parthenolide. Other potentially active constituents include flavonoid glycosides and pinenes. There has been some scientific interest in parthenolide, which has been shown to induce apoptosis in some cancer cell lines in vitro and potentially to target cancer stem cells.

Health Benefits of Feverfew (Organicfacts.net)

Migraines: It is one of the few herbs with substantial scientific evidence for its efficacy in migraine prophylaxis. Most RCTs and surveys of individuals using feverfew for migraine prevention have documented beneficial results. Not only has feverfew demonstrated a reduction in migraine frequency and pain intensity, but also a profound reduction has been observed in typical accompanying symptoms, including vomiting, nausea, photophobia, and phonophobia.

Anxiety and Stress: Although the pathway for this particular benefit is not fully understood, feverfew has been known to reduce stress and alleviate anxiety in some users. This is very important for those who suffer from chronic stress, as the presence of stress hormones in the body can be dangerous over long periods.

Lower Inflammation: Some of the volatile compounds in feverfew have anti-inflammatory abilities, which effectively reduces inflammation throughout the body. For those who suffer from chronic joint pain, arthritis, gout, and other inflammatory conditions, herbal treatment with feverfew is a painless and effective solution.

Pain Reduction: This is closely related to the anti-inflammatory effects of feverfew, but any analgesic substance deserves some recognition. For thousands of years, feverfew has been used to prevent pain throughout the body, not just the pain of headaches and migraines. Following surgery or an injury, it can be successfully utilized for rapid and long-lasting relief.

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Fever Symptoms: Traditionally, feverfew has been used to break and eliminate fevers. The name of the plant should be some indication of this ability. If you are suffering from a fever, whether it is linked to another more serious illness or not, it can help to promote sweating and eliminate toxins from the body, speeding the healing process and reducing inflammation.

Menstrual Discomfort: One of the popular uses of feverfew is in the reduction of discomfort during menstruation. For billions of women around the world, menstruation can be a painful monthly occurrence that includes cramps, bloating, hormonal swings, pain, and excessive bleeding. It can effectively lower inflammation, eliminate cramps, and induce calm to reduce mood swings and anxiety.

Appetite Booster: For people trying to gain weight or recovering from an injury/surgery, increasing one’s appetite can be very important. Feverfew has been linked to certain hormonal activity that induces hunger. While this may not be ideal for people trying to stay on a diet, it can certainly help the healing process and weight gain efforts for those individuals who may be underweight or calorie-deficient.

Respiratory Function: The soothing ability of feverfew also extends to the respiratory tract, where this herb is able to reduce inflammation and irritation, which can often exacerbate conditions like asthma or coughing. By allowing the respiratory tracts to relax, it can help soothe these symptoms and improve overall respiratory health.

Skin Guard: One of the more recent health benefits of feverfew is its role in skin health. Research is ongoing on the full effects of feverfew on the skin, but when it comes to dermatitis and other common forms of irritation, it has been shown to improve symptoms when topically applied.

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Heart Health: Feverfew can inhibit the production of certain prostaglandins in the body that are responsible for increasing blood pressure. By reducing symptoms of hypertension, feverfew can protect overall heart health and lower the chances of experiencing atherosclerosis, and the consequent heart attacks and strokes linked to that particular blockage of the cardiovascular system.

How to Take: Recommended dosage, active amounts, other details

The standard adult dose for feverfew supplementation is 100-300 mg of a feverfew supplement containing 0.2%-0.4% parthenolide, taken one to four times a day.

Children younger than two should not be given feverfew. The standard feverfew dose for children is based off of a standard adult weight of 150 lbs. For example, if a child weighs 50lbs, the dose is one-third of the adult dose.

Liquid and tincture feverfew supplements are sometimes used to alleviate arthritis. The suggested dose is 60 – 120 drops of 1:1 (fluid) supplement or a 1:5 (tincture) supplement, taken twice a day.

Essential Oil of the Root of Tanacetum parthenium: The roots and rhizomes of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schulz. Bip. (Asteraceae), have been used in Iranian traditional medicine under the name of Aqhovan, as digestive and stomachic tonic. Composition of the essential oil, which was obtained from the root of T. parthenium collected from Karaj, was determined by gas chromatography, combined GC/MS and GC/IR. In total, 20 components (92% of essential oil) were identified. Major constituents were camphor (30.2%), (Z)- chrysanthenyl acetate (26.5%), α-farnesene (11.1%) and spathulenol (8.2%).

Common side effects: oral ulcers and tongue soreness if dried leaves are chewed. It can cause increased heart rates, dizziness, anxiety, sleeplessness, abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, and diarrhea.

Long-term use of feverfew followed by abrupt discontinuation may induce a withdrawal syndrome featuring rebound headaches and muscle and joint pains. Feverfew can cause allergic reactions, including contact dermatitis.

Other side effects have included gastrointestinal upset such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and flatulence. When the herb is chewed or taken orally it can cause mouth ulcers and swelling and numbness of the mouth. Feverfew should not be taken by pregnant women. It may interact with blood thinners and increase the risk of bleeding and may also interact with a variety of medications metabolized by the liver.

References:

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanacetum_parthenium
  2. http://nccih.nih.gov/health/feverfew
  3. https://www.organicfacts.net/feverfew.html
  4. https://examine.com/supplements/feverfew/
  5. https://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/f/feverf10.html
  6. https://doi.org/10.1002%2F14651858.CD002286.pub2
  7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Center_for_Complementary_and_Integrative_Health
  8. https://migraine.com/migraine-treatment/natural-remedies/feverfew/
  9. http://www.meschinohealth.com/books/feverfew
  10. http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/105/11/4163.long
  11. http://www.pharmacists.ca/content/CPJPDFS/Jan04/parthenolide.pdf
  12. http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/feverfew-000243.htm
  13. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0890-6238(06)00102-X
  14. http://www.agriculture.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=5a05a8da-ff3e-490b-b280-35f7b22b803b
  15. https://www.jstor.org/stable/29520398
  16. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3210009/
  17. https://www.medicinenet.com/feverfew_tanacetum_parthenium-oral/article.htm
  18. https://www.medicinenet.com/feverfew_tanacetum_parthenium-oral/article.htm#which_drugs_or_supplements_interact_with_feverfew_tanacetum_parthenium-oral
  19. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/tanacetum-parthenium
  20. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199711)11:7%3C508::AID-PTR153%3E3.0.CO;2-H/abstract
  21. http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Herbal_-_HMPC_assessment_report/2011/06/WC500107719.pdf
  22. http://ijpr.sbmu.ac.ir/article_735.html
  23. https://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-933-feverfew.aspx?activeingredientid=933&activeingredientname=feverfew
  24. Duke JA. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1985. CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs.

Clove Bud

Clove Bud (Syzygium aromaticum)

You will find Clove Bud in Mother Jai’s Pain Relief Oils, Aroma Sprays, and Mouthwash

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Other Names: Bourgeon Floral de Clou de Girofle, Bouton Floral de Clou de Girofle, Caryophylli Flos, Caryophyllum, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Clavo de Olor, Clous de Girolfe, Clove Flower, Clove Flowerbud, Clove Leaf, Clove Oil, Clove Stem, Cloves

Botany: The clove plant grows in warm climates and is cultivated commercially in Tanzania, Sumatra, the Maluku (Molucca) Islands, and South America. The tall evergreen plant grows up to 20 m and has leathery leaves. The strongly aromatic clove spice is the dried flower bud; essential oils are obtained from the buds, stems, and leaves. The dark brown buds are 12 to 22 mm in length and have 4 projecting calyx lobes. The 4 petals above the lobes fold over to form a hood, which hides numerous stamens. Synonyms are Eugenia caryophyllata , Eugenia caryophyllus , and Caryophyllus aromaticus .

Oil properties: Clove oil has a warm, strong, spicy smell and the oil is colorless to pale yellow with a medium to watery viscosity. It blends well with Allspice, basil, bay, bergamot, chamomile, clary sage, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, jasmine, lavender, lemon, mandarin, palmarosa, rose, sandalwood, vanilla, ylang ylang

Origin of clove oil: A native of Indonesia and the Malacca Islands, it is an evergreen tree that grows to about 10 meters (30 feet) tall and has bright green leaves and nail-shaped rose-peach flower buds which turn, upon drying, a deep red brown. These are beaten from the tree and dried. The Latin word ‘Clavus’ means nail shaped, referring to the bud. It was often used by the Greeks, Roman and the Chinese, to ease toothache and as a breath sweetener, especially when talking to the Emperor. It has antiseptic properties and was used in the prevention of contagious diseases, such as the Plaque. It was an important commodity in the spice trade and is still used in perfumes, mulled wines and liqueurs, love potions, dental products and, stuck in an orange as pomade, an insect repellant.

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Extraction clove oil: Clove oil can be extracted from the leaves, stem and buds. We sell clove leaf oil, which is extracted by water distillation, containing the desired lower percentage of eugenol.

Chemical composition: The main chemical components of clove oil are eugenol, eugenol acetate, iso-eugenol and caryophyllene.

Scientific Facts About Clove: Clove is the dried bud of the flower from the tree Syzygium aromaticum. It belongs to the plant family named Myrtaceae. The plant is an evergreen plant growing in tropical and subtropical conditions. Clove is an herb and people use various parts of the plant, including the dried bud, stems, and leaves to make medicine. Clove oil is also famous for its medicinal properties. Clove has been used for thousands of years in India and China not only as a spice and condiment but also as a medicine for many ailments. Ayurvedic medicating used cloves for tooth decay, halitosis, and bad breath. In Chinese medicine, clove was considered to possess aphrodisiac properties.

Cloves Nutrition Facts: According to the National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, the nutrients found in 100 grams of cloves include 65 grams of carbohydrate, 6 grams of protein, 13 grams of total lipids, 2 grams of sugars, 274 kcal of energy and 33 grams of dietary fibers. Minerals in cloves include calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium, sodium, and zinc. The vitamins found in them include vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin D, and vitamin K.

Precautions: Clove oil is a very potent oil and should be used with care. If it is used in a oil, lotion or cream applied to the skin, the concentration should be well below 1%. It may cause irritation to the skin of some individuals and can easily irritate the mucus membranes. It should be avoided during pregnancy.

Therapeutic properties: analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, anti-neuralgic, carminative, anti-infectious, disinfectant, insecticide, stimulant, stomachic, uterine and tonic.

Clove oil can be used for acne, bruises, burns and cuts, keeping infection at bay and as a pain reliever. It helps with toothache, mouth sores, rheumatism and arthritis. It is beneficial to the digestive system, effective against vomiting, diarrhea, flatulence, spasms and parasites, as well as bad breath. Clove oil is valuable for relieving respiratory problems, like bronchitis, asthma and tuberculosis. The disinfecting property is useful in cases of infectious diseases. Placing a few drops of clove oil on a cotton ball and then placing the cotton ball in a linen cupboard will not only fragrance the cupboard, but will help to keep fish moths at bay.

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Burners and vaporizers: In vapor therapy, clove oil can be useful for bronchitis and dizziness and to help lift depression, while strengthening memory and fighting weakness and lethargy.

Massage oil: Clove oil can be used in a blended massage oil to assist with diarrhea, bronchitis, chills, colds, muscular numbness, spasms, rheumatism and arthritis. For toothache the outer jaw can be massaged with this oil. Use a low dilution of less than 1%.

In cream or lotion: When used in a cream or lotion, the positive effects of clove oil are the same as those of a massage oil and can furthermore help to sort out leg ulcers and skin sores. Use in low dilution of less than 1%.

Mouthwash: Clove oil can be included at a low rate as part of a mouthwash for toothache.

Health benefits of clove bud

Better Digestion: Cloves improve digestion by stimulating the secretion of digestive enzymes. Cloves are also good for reducing flatulence, gastric irritability, dyspepsia, and nausea. They can be roasted, powdered, and taken with honey for relief in digestive disorders.

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Antibacterial Properties: Cloves have been tested for their antibacterial properties against a number of human pathogens. The extracts of cloves were potent enough to kill those pathogens. Clove extracts are also effective against the specific bacteria that spread cholera.

Chemo-preventive Properties: Cloves are of interest to the medical community due to their chemo-preventive or anti-carcinogenic properties. Tests have shown that they are helpful in controlling lung cancer at its early stages.

Liver Protection: Cloves contain high amounts of antioxidants, which are ideal for protecting the organs from the effects of free radicals, especially the liver. Metabolism, in the long run, increases free radical production and lipid profile, while decreasing the antioxidants in the liver. Clove extracts are helpful in counteracting those effects with its hepatoprotective properties.

Diabetes Control: Cloves have been used in many traditional remedies for a number of diseases. One such disease is diabetes. In patients suffering from diabetes, the amount of insulin produced by the body is not sufficient or insulin is not produced at all. Studies have revealed that extracts from cloves imitate insulin in certain ways and help in controlling blood sugar levels.

Bone Preservation: The hydro-alcoholic extracts of cloves include phenolic compounds such as eugenol and its derivatives, such as flavones, isoflavones and flavonoids. These extracts have been particularly helpful in preserving bone density and the mineral content of bone, as well as increasing tensile strength of bones in case of osteoporosis.

Anti-mutagenic Properties: Mutagens are those chemicals that change the genetic makeup of the DNA by causing mutations. Biochemical compounds found in cloves, like phenylpropanoids, possess anti-mutagenic properties. These were administered on cells treated with mutagens and they were able to control the mutagenic effects to a significant rate.

Boosts the Immune System: Ayurveda describes certain plants to be effective in developing and protecting the immune system. One such plant is clove. The dried flower bud of clove contains compounds that help in improving the immune system by increasing the white blood cell count, thereby, improving delayed-type hypersensitivity.

Anti-inflammatory Properties: Cloves possess anti-inflammatory and pain-killing properties. Studies on clove extracts being administered in lab rats, suggest that the presence of eugenol reduced the inflammation caused by edema. It was also confirmed that eugenol has the ability to reduce pain by stimulating pain receptors.

Cure for Oral Diseases: Cloves can be taken for gum diseases like gingivitis and periodontitis. Clove bud extracts significantly control the growth of oral pathogens, which are responsible for various oral diseases. Cloves can also be used for toothaches due to their pain-killing properties.

Aphrodisiac Properties: Spices such as clove and nutmeg have been said to possess aphrodisiac properties, according to Unani medicine. Experiments on clove and nutmeg extracts were tested against standard drugs administered for that reason, and both clove and nutmeg showed positive results.

Cure for Headaches: Headaches can be reduced by using cloves. Make a paste of a few cloves and mix it with a dash of rock salt. Add this to a glass of milk. This mixture reduces headaches quickly and effectively.

Anal fissures. Early research suggests that applying a clove oil cream to anal fissures for 6 weeks improves healing compared to using stool softeners and applying lignocaine cream.

Dental plaque. Early research suggests that using a specific toothpaste (Sudantha, Link Natural Products Ltd.) containing a combination of clove, Acacia chundra Willd., malabar nut, bullet wood tree, black pepper, Indian beech, gall oak, Terminalia, and ginger twice daily for 12 weeks can reduce dental plaque, bleeding, and amount of bacteria in the mouth.

Mosquito repellent. Early research suggests that applying clove oil or clove oil gel to the skin can repel mosquitos for up to 5 hours.

Pain. Early research suggests that applying a gel containing ground cloves for 5 minutes before being stuck with a needle can reduce needle stick pain similarly to benzocaine.

Premature ejaculation. Research shows that applying a cream containing clove flower plus Panax ginseng root, Angelica root, Cistanches deserticola, Zanthoxyl species, Torlidis seed, Asiasari root, cinnamon bark, and toad venom (SS Cream) to the skin of the penis improves premature ejaculation.

Toothache. Clove oil and eugenol, one of the chemicals it contains, have long been used topically for toothache, but the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has reclassified eugenol, downgrading its effectiveness rating. The FDA now believes there is not enough evidence to rate eugenol as effective for toothache pain. “Dry socket” following tooth extraction.

Side Effects Of Using Clove

Clove Oil: Clove oils must not be used directly; instead they must be diluted either in olive oil or in distilled water. Clove extract oil is generally considered to be safe, but certain studies have revealed that they possess cytotoxic properties. There are two major components present in clove extract oil, eugenol, and B-caryophyllene. These compounds were particularly effective against fibroblasts and endothelial cells.

Clove Cigarettes: In Indonesia, cloves are consumed on a large scale in the form of cigarettes, popularly known as kreteks. These clove cigarettes have emerged as an alternative to tobacco cigarettes, but research shows that clove cigarettes are actually worse than conventional cigarettes. In the case of clove cigarettes, the amount of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and tar entering into the lungs was higher than that from normal tobacco cigarettes.

Note These Contraindications for the Use of Clove Oil

Keep in mind that the oil of cloves should be used moderately. Because of the high content of eugenol, excessive use may cause nausea, vomiting and blood problems. Other contraindications for this essential oil include the following:

• Phototoxicity. Do not use this oil before going out into direct sunlight, as it can lead to severe burns and other skin problems.

• Aspirin or anticoagulant medications. Clove bud oil can slow down platelet activity, which can interfere with these medications and cause adverse effects.

• Allergic reactions. Topically applying clove bud oil on damaged skin may cause severe allergic reactions and can further damage the skin.

Recipes

Clove and Cinnamon Tea

  • 1 1/2 cup water
  • 1 clove, crushed
  • 1 pinch cinnamon
  • 3/4 teaspoon tea leaves
  • 1 teaspoon honey
  • 1 teaspoon raw milk, optional

Cooking Directions:

  • Boil water, cloves and cinnamon powder.
  • Cover the pot with a tight lid to retain flavors.
  • Boil for about two minutes.
  • Lower the heat and add the tea leaves.
  • Remove from heat and let stand for a few minutes or until it is drinkable.
  • Add the honey and milk. Serve.

World’s Greatest Vegetable Broth

  • 1 pound celery
  • 1 1/2 pound sweet onions
  • 1 pound carrots, cut into 1-inch pieces
  • 1 pound tomatoes, cored
  • 1 pound green bell pepper, cut into 1-inch pieces
  • 1/2 pound turnips, cubed
  • 2 tablespoons coconut oil
  • 3 cloves garlic
  • 3 whole cloves
  • 1 bay leaf
  • 6 whole black peppercorns
  • 1 bunch fresh parsley, chopped
  • 1 gallon water

Cooking Directions:

  • Preheat oven to 450 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • Remove leaves and tender inner parts of celery. Set aside.
  • Toss onions, carrots, tomatoes, bell peppers and turnips with coconut oil. Place vegetables in a roasting pan and place them in the oven. Stir the vegetable every 15 minutes. Cook until all of the vegetables have browned and the onions start to caramelize. This takes about an hour.
  • Put the browned vegetables, celery, garlic, cloves, bay leaf, peppercorns, parsley and water into a stock pot. Bring to a full boil. Reduce the heat to simmer. Cook uncovered until liquid is reduced in half.
  • Pour the broth through a colander, catching the broth in a large bowl or pot. The broth can be use immediately in other dishes or frozen for future use.

How to Make Infused Clove Oil

  • 4 fresh clove buds, crushed
  • Carrier oil, such as coconut oil
  • Strainer
  • Glass container with spout
  • Airtight bottleneck jar

Procedure:

  • Take the airtight jar and place the four crushed cloves at the bottom. Crush them thoroughly so that they can fit into the container.
  • Fill the jar with the carrier oil until the cloves are submerged, but not too much to overfill the container.
  • Seal the container tightly. Exposure to air can affect the oil’s potency.
  • Set aside the mixture for a week in an area where it can be exposed to sunlight.
  • Transfer the mixture into the glass container with a spout. Use the strainer to remove any sediment. Do not hesitate to strain the oil a couple of times to make sure particles are completely removed.
  • Dispose of the cloves from the strainer and do not reuse these cloves, as doing so can impact the effectiveness of the oil.
  • The strained mixture should be poured back into the airtight bottleneck container.
  • When storing, make sure the oil of is sealed tight. Shelf life can last from four to five years. Color may darken as time progresses.

Cleansing the body from parasites

– a mixture of linseed and cloves

Ingredients:

  • The linseed and the clove are effective with almost all types of parasites.
  • In order to prepare the mixture for cleansing, you need to take 10 parts of linseed and 1 part of dried cloves (100 grams of linseed and 10 grams of cloves).
  • The cloves are actually immature, unopened flower buds of the tropical tree in the myrtle family. While they are fresh, they are pink, and when they are dried they change their color in brown.

Preparation:

  • Chop everything together into dust in a coffee mill.
  • This is your healing powder for cleansing!

Consumption:

  • Take 2 tablespoons of it every day, for three days.
  • You can add the powder to cooked food in one meal, or eat it and then drink a glass of warm water (preferably in the morning).
  • After three days of taking this mixture, you should take a break for 3 days.
  • Then repeat everything again.
  • You should take this mixture for about one month.

References:

  1. http://essentialoils.co.za/essential-oils/clove.htm
  2. https://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-251-clove.aspx?activeingredientid=251&activeingredientname=clove
  3. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/858d/c0cdbe19ca12d9b0f74ed503cf909791ecc1.pdf
  4. https://www.drugs.com/npp/clove.html
  5. http://naturalsociety.com/health-benefits-of-cloves-super-spice-healing/
  6. http://www.healthyfoodplace.com/cleanse-body-parasites-normalize-weight-two-ingredients/
  7. https://articles.mercola.com/herbs-spices/cloves.aspx
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3819475/
  9. http://aip.scitation.org/doi/pdf/10.1063/1.4991186
  10. https://www.mountainroseherbs.com/products/clove-bud-essential-oil/profile
  11. http://ojs.cnr.ncsu.edu/index.php/BioRes/article/view/BioRes_02_2_265_269_Alma_ENK_Turkish_Clove_Essential_Oils
  12. https://www.probotanic.com/pdf_istrazivanja/ulje_karanfilica/Ulje%20karanfilica%20dokazano%20deluje%20protiv%20mikroorganizama%20koji%20uzrokuju%20karijes.pdf
  13. http://www.essencejournal.com/pdf/2015/vol2issue3/PartA/2-3-2-972.pdf
  14. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1862c0089S
  15. http://www.microbiologyresearch.org/docserver/fulltext/jmm/58/11/1454.pdf?expires=1512247442&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=F00E07D0D85DF5B8B36D04401FFC2C62
  16. http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162015000300010
  17. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf060608c
  18. http://www.sciencedomain.org/abstract/3955
  19. https://www.planttherapy.com/clove-bud-organic-essential-oil
  20. http://www.essentialingredients.com/msds/Clove%20Bud%20Oil%20Natural.pdf
  21. http://uses.plantnet-project.org/en/Syzygium_aromaticum_(PROSEA)
  22. https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/herbs-and-spices/health-benefits-of-cloves.html
  23. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=0q_r9aYSF_MC
  24. https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/251.html
  25. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=C0D3z66O8Q8C
  26. https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/261
  27. http://www.relaquim.com/archive/2007/p2007353-47.pdf
  28. http://carcin.oxfordjournals.org/content/27/8/1645
  29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.09.024
  30. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14786419.2010.511216
  31. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf030247q
  32. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1211/jpp.61.07.0017/abstract
  33. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2009000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
  34. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/np960451q
  35. http://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6882-3-6
  36. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=C0D3z66O8Q8C
  37. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2184.2006.00384.x/abstract
  38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0091-3057(02)01076-6

Cinnamon Leaf

Cinnamon leaf oil (Cinnamomum verum)

Find Cinnamon leaf oil in Mother Jai’s Aroma Sprays and many other truly natural products. Petroleum and artificial preservative free! We ONLY use all natural and American made Everclear as an emulsifier and preservative!

Learn more about Cinnamon Leaf essential oil below.

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Cinnamon leaf oil comes from Cinnamonum verum (also called Laurus cinnamomum) from the Laurel (Lauraceae) plant family. This small and bushy evergreen tree is native to Sri Lanka, but now grows in many countries such as India, China, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Indonesia. There are actually over 100 varieties of C. verum, with Cinnamonum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) and Cinnamomun aromaticum (Chinese cinnamon) as the most consumed.

Cinnamon bark oil is extracted from the outer bark of the tree, resulting in a potent, perfume-quality essential oil. Cinnamon bark oil is extremely refined and therefore very expensive for everyday use, which is why many people settle for cinnamon leaf oil, as it’s lighter, cheaper, and ideal for regular use. Cinnamon leaf oil has a musky and spicy scent, and a light yellow tinge that distinguishes it from the red-brown color of cinnamon bark oil.

Composition of Cinnamon Leaf Oil

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The oil extracted from cinnamon leaves contain phenols and beneficial components like eugenol, eugenol acetate, cinnamic aldehyde, linalool, and benzyl benzoate. It also has low levels of cinnamaldehyde, an excellent flavoring agent and the active component that helps repel mosquitoes and other insects. The leaf oil has a higher eugenol content then the bark oil, which increases its analgesic properties.

Blends Well With

Benzoin, bergamot, cardamom, clove, frankincense, ginger, grapefruit, lemon, mandarin, marjoram, nutmeg, orange, peppermint, peru balsam, petitgrain, rose, vanilla, ylang ylang

Blending: This oil blends well with various essential oils, so it is added to many aromatherapy preparations. It enhances the effectiveness of other herbs and essential oils, thus speeding up the treatment of various herbal remedies. Furthermore, many herbs can have an unpleasant taste. Cinnamon or cinnamon oil is often added to herbal preparations to make them taste better.

https://www.planttherapy.com

Uses of Cinnamon Leaf Oil

Cinnamon leaf oil can be used as an additive in soaps and a flavoring to seasonings. When used in aromatherapy – diffused, applied topically (I recommend diluting with a mild essential oil or mixing in your favorite cream, lotion, or shampoo), or added to your bath water – it can have health-promoting effects. Here are some ways to use cinnamon leaf oil for your health and around your home:

Use it as a disinfectant. With its strong germicidal properties, cinnamon leaf oil works as a non-toxic natural disinfectant. Use it to clean your toilets, refrigerator, kitchen counters and other surfaces, door knobs, microwave, and sneakers. You can even use it to clean and disinfect your chopping boards.

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Make a facial scrub. Mix it with cinnamon sugar, orange juice, and olive oil to create a rejuvenating scrub that has antiseptic properties to help kill facial bacteria effectively.

Gargle as a mouthwash. Add a drop or two to a glass of purified water, and gargle with it. For people with dentures, simply make a solution of water, hydrogen peroxide, and cinnamon leaf oil, and soak your dentures in it.

Add it to your foot soak. Mix a drop of cinnamon leaf oil in a bucket of warm water, and then soak your feet in it. This works great for athletes and people who wear closed shoes for most of the day.

Use cinnamon leaf oil as an insect repellent. Did you know that the scent of cinnamon leaf oil can deter pesky household insects, such as black ants, mosquitoes, roaches, and flies? Studies found that it may even be more effective at repelling mosquitoes than the toxic chemical DEET. Simply spray or diffuse the oil around your home. You can also spray it over your mattresses and sheets to get rid of bed bugs.

Add it to your shampoo. Add a drop of cinnamon leaf oil to your regular non-chemical shampoo. This will help keep your hair healthy and, in children, help kill stubborn head lice.

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Instead of fabric softener. Add a few drops of the oil to wool laundry drying balls. As the balls mingle and fluff damp fabric in the dryer, the scent is transferred. I love adding essential oils when laundering bedding or towels.

Warmer diffusion. Mix a tablespoon of pure coconut oil with two to three drops of cinnamon essential oil, and place it in a wax warmer. As the coconut oil melts, the essential oil scent is released into the air.

Clean better. Place a few drops of cinnamon oil in a homemade cleanser. As you wipe down surfaces, the oil leaves behind a nontoxic scent that some studies claim may help reduce bacteria growth. You can read these and decide for yourself in Public Library of Science (PLoS) ONE and Food Control.

Relax in the bath. Place a few drops of oil in your bath water. As you soak, the aroma fills your bathroom and creates a calm feeling.

Sleep Better. Put one drop of cinnamon essential oil on the back of your pillowcase to promote restful sleep.

Mix a drop or two of cinnamon oil into massage oil before indulging.

Side Effects of Cinnamon Leaf Oil

Use cinnamon oil in moderation and properly diluted, as high dosages may lead to convulsions in some individuals. This oil may also lead to side effects such as skin irritation, mouth sores, dizziness, vomiting, and diarrhea. It may irritate your urinary tract, intestines, and stomach lining, if taken internally. If these symptoms occur, consult a healthcare practitioner immediately.

Very high quantities of cassia cinnamon may be toxic, particularly in people with liver problems. Because cinnamon may lower blood sugar, people with diabetes may need to adjust their treatment if they use cinnamon supplements. An ingredient in some cinnamon products, coumarin, may cause liver problems; but the amount of this compound ingested is usually so small that this wouldn’t happen for most people.

If you take any medication regularly, talk to your doctor before you start using cinnamon supplements. They could interact with antibiotics, diabetes drugs, blood thinners, heart medicines, and others.

Word of Caution: Being strong in nature, cinnamon oil should be avoided for internal consumption. Furthermore, it can have adverse effects on the skin if used topically in concentrated form. Therefore, it should be used in diluted form. Before using the oil, it should be tested to make sure it suits your skin. You should apply only a small quantity of the oil initially and check if you develop an allergic reaction. Do not apply the oil to the face and other sensitive areas.

References:

  1. https://articles.mercola.com/herbal-oils/cinnamon-leaf-oil.aspx
  2. http://www.nutrition-and-you.com/cinnamon-spice.html
  3. http://cinnamonvogue.blogspot.com/2012/09/how-to-use-cinnamon-leaf-oil.html
  4. http://www.essentialoils.co.za/essential-oils/cinnamon-leaf.htm
  5. http://www.quinessence.com/blog/cinnamon-leaf-essential-oil
  6. http://www.organicfacts.net/organic-oils/natural-essential-oils/health-benefits-of-cinnamon-oil.html
  7. http://www.benefitsfromcinnamon.com/benefits/benefits-of-cinnamon-leaves
  8. http://www.nutraingredients-usa.com/news/ng.asp?n=51170-cinnamon-boosts-brain
  9. http://newsroom.heart.org/news/cinnamon-may-lessen-damage-of-high-fat-diet-in-rats?preview=b021
  10. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn4413#.UmA18_kmvwU
  11. http://pubs.acs.org/journal/jafcau
  12. http://www.ntu.edu.tw/
  13. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0956713514003235

Chamomile Flower

Chamomile Flowers (Matricaria recutita)

These are the dried flowers you can purchase in bulk or in tea bags in the store. Also known as Matricaria chamomilla or German Chamomile. The names seem to be used interchangeably. Commonly known as chamomile (also spelled camomile), Italian camomilla, German chamomile, Hungarian chamomile (kamilla), wild chamomile, Manzanilla, Matricaris, Sweet False Chamomile, Ground apple, Blue Chamomile, or scented mayweed, is an annual plant of the composite family Asteraceae. M. chamomilla is the most popular source of the herbal product chamomile, although other species are also used as chamomile.

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German chamomile is used in herbal medicine for a sore stomach, irritable bowel syndrome, and as a gentle sleep aid. It is also used as a mild laxative and is anti-inflammatory and bactericidal. It can be taken as an herbal tea, two teaspoons of dried flower per cup of tea, which should be steeped for 10 to 15 minutes while covered to avoid evaporation of the volatile oils.

One of the active ingredients of its essential oil is the terpene bisabolol. Other active ingredients include farnesene, chamazulene, flavonoids (including apigenin, quercetin, patuletin and luteolin) and coumarin.

Chamomile, a relative of ragweed, can cause allergy symptoms and can cross-react with ragweed pollen in individuals with ragweed allergies. It also contains coumarin, so care should be taken to avoid potential drug interactions, e.g. with blood thinners. While extremely rare, very large doses of chamomile may cause nausea and vomiting. Even more rarely, rashes may occur. Type-IV allergic reactions (i.e. contact dermatitis) are common and one case of severe Type-I reaction (i.e. anaphylaxis) has been reported in a 38-year-old man who drank chamomile tea.

Drug-Herb Interactions

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  • Non-heme Iron – Reduced absorption (human study)
  • Warfarin – Potentiated (speculative)
  • Benzodiazepines and Opiate Withdrawal – Adjuvant to (empirical)

Formulation & Preparation

  • Infusion – 2 tsp/cup three to four times daily
  • Tincture – 1-4mL (1:5, 40%) three times daily or 7-14mL (1:5, 50%) three times daily
  • Oil – 2-3 drops of essential oil in hot water basin for steam inhalation
  • Eyewash – 1 cup warm infusion, strained, wash eyes gently
  • To encourage a baby to sleep – 1-2 cups strained infusion (tea) in bath water

Healing with Chamomile

  • as a tea, be used for lumbago, rheumatic problems and rashes.
  • as a salve, be used for hemorrhoids and wounds.
  • as a vapor, be used to alleviate cold symptoms or asthma.
  • relieve restlessness, teething problems, and colic in children.
  • relieve allergies, much as an antihistamine would.
  • aid in digestion when taken as a tea after meals.
  • relieve morning sickness during pregnancy.
  • speed healing of skin ulcers, wounds, or burns.
  • treat gastritis and ulcerative colitis.
  • reduce inflammation and facilitate bowel movement without acting directly as a purgative.
  • be used as a wash or compress for skin problems and inflammations, including inflammations of mucous tissue.
  • promote general relaxation and relieve stress. Animal studies show that chamomile contains substances that act on the same parts of the brain and nervous system as anti-anxiety drugs. Never stop taking prescription medications, however, without consulting your doctor.
  • control insomnia. Chamomile’s mildly sedating, and muscle-relaxing effects may help those who suffer from insomnia to fall asleep more easily.
  • Treat diverticular disease, irritable bowel problems and various gastrointestinal complaints. Chamomile’s reported anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic actions relax the smooth muscles lining the stomach and intestine. The herb may therefore help to relieve nausea, heartburn, and stress-related flatulence. It may also be useful in the treatment of diverticular disorders and inflammatory bowel conditions such as Crohn’s disease.
  • soothe skin rashes (including eczema), minor burns and sunburn. Used as a lotion or added in oil form to a cool bath, chamomile may ease the itching of eczema and other rashes and reduces skin inflammation. It may also speed healing and prevent bacterial infection.
  • treat eye inflammation and infection. Cooled chamomile tea can be used in a compress to help soothe tired, irritated eyes and it may even help treat conjunctivitis.
  • heal mouth sores and prevent gum disease. A chamomile mouthwash may help soothe mouth inflammations and keep gums healthy.
  • reduce menstrual cramps. Chamomile’s believed ability to relax the smooth muscles of the uterus helps ease the discomfort of menstrual cramping.
  • Calms Muscle Spasms – One study from England found that drinking chamomile tea raised urine levels of glycine, a compound that calms muscle spasms. Researchers believe this is why chamomile tea could prove to be an effective home remedy for menstrual cramps as well.
  • Natural Hemorrhoid Treatment – Chamomile ointment can help to relieve hemorrhoids.
  • Fights Cancer – It’s very likely that chamomile tea can help reduce cancerous cells, although research is still ongoing to see exactly how chamomile reverses abnormal cellular growth.

References:

  1. http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/hort/herbs/chamom.htm
  2. http://heritagegarden.uic.edu/german-chamomile-matricaria-recutita/
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22070986
  4. https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=MARE6
  5. http://www.ndhealthfacts.org/wiki/Matricaria_recutita
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16628544
  7. https://www.herbwisdom.com/herb-chamomile.html
  8. https://www.drugs.com/npc/chamomile.html
  9. http://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/chamom122013final.pdf
  10. http://naturalsociety.com/9-amazing-health-benefits-of-chamomile-tea/
  11. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/7151230_A_Review_of_the_bioactivity_and_potential_health_benefits_of_chamomile_tea_Matricaria_recutita_L
  12. http://www.ucdenver.edu/academics/colleges/pharmacy/currentstudents/OnCampusPharmDStudents/ExperientialProgram/Documents/nutr_monographs/Monograph-chamomile.pdf
  13. https://www.mountainroseherbs.com/products/chamomile-flower-powder/profile
  14. https://www.herbal-supplement-resource.com/german-chamomile.html
  15. http://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/chamomile.pdf
  16. http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/en/d/Js2200e/11.html
  17. “Matricaria chamomilla”. Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 15 June 2008.
  18. “Matricaria recutita”. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 15 June 2008.

Roman Chamomile

Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile)

Botanical Name: Anthemis nobilis / Chamaemelum nobile

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Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Plant Part Typically Used: Flowers/Buds

Color: Gray/Very Pale Blue

BLENDS WELL WITH: Bergamot, clary sage, eucalyptus, geranium, grapefruit, jasmine, lavender, lemon, neroli, oakmoss, palmarosa, rose, tea tree

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Chamaemelum nobile commonly known as Anthémis, Anthémis Odorante, Anthemis nobilis, Babuna Ke Phool, Camomille d’Anjou, Camomille Noble, Camomille Romaine, Chamaemelum nobile, Chamomilla, Chamomile, Chamomillae Ramane Flos, English Chamomile, Fleur de Camomille Romaine, Flores Anthemidis, Garden Chamomile, Grosse Kamille, Ground Apple, Huile Essentielle de Camomille Romaine, Low Chamomile, Manzanilla, Manzanilla Romana, Ormenis nobilis, Roman Chamomile Essential Oil, Romische Kamille, Sweet Chamomile, Whig Plant.

Composition of Roman Chamomile Oil: main components include a-pinene, b-pinene, camphene, sabinene, 1,8-cineole, myrcene, caryophyllene, y-terpinene, propyl angelate and butyl angelate.

Roman chamomile comes from northwestern Europe and Northern Ireland where it creeps close to the ground and can reach up to one foot in height. Gray-green leaves grow from the stems, and the flowers have yellow centers surrounded by white petals, like miniature daisies. Its leaves are thicker than German chamomile, and it grows closer to the ground. The flowers smell like apples.

The plant is used to flavor foods, in herbal teas, perfumes, and cosmetics. It is used to make a rinse for blonde hair, and is popular in aromatherapy; its practitioners believe it to be a calming agent to reduce stress and aid in sleep. It can also be used to create a fragrant camomile lawn. A chamomile lawn needs light soil, adequate moisture, and sun in order to thrive. Each square meter contains 83-100 plants. The lawn is only suitable to light foot traffic or in places where mower access is difficult.

Its properties make it appropriate for the treatment of cracked nipples that develop during breastfeeding. It can be applied directly to the skin for pain and swelling. It is not recommended for use during pregnancy as it can cause uterine contractions and miscarriage.

Pediatric: Scientists have not studied Roman chamomile in children. Talk to your doctor to find the right dose before giving Roman chamomile to a child.

Adult – The appropriate dose of Roman chamomile depends on several factors such as the user’s age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough information to determine an appropriate range of doses for Roman chamomile. It is not known if Roman chamomile interacts with any medications. There are no known interactions with other herbs and supplements. There are no known interactions with foods.

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  • Tea: Pour 1 cup of boiling water over 2 to 3 heaping tsp. (2 to 4 g) of dried herb, steep 10 to 15 minutes. Drink 3 to 4 times per day between meals.
  • Bath: Use 1/4 lb. of dried flowers per bath, or add 5 to 10 drops of essential oil to a full tub of water to soothe hemorrhoids, cuts, eczema, perineal pain, or insect bites.
  • Cream/Ointment: Apply cream or ointment containing 3 to 10% chamomile content.

History and Facts

Chamomile is one of the oldest, most widely used and well-documented medicinal plants in the world and has been recommended for a variety of healing applications. Chamomile plants are a member of the Asteraceae/Compositae family. There are two common types of chamomile used medicinally today: German chamomile (chamomilla recutita) and Roman chamomile (chamaemelum nobile).

Roman chamomile essential oil is steam-distilled from the plant’s flowers and has a sweet, fresh, apple-like and fruity aroma. After distillation, the oil ranges in color from brilliant blue to deep green when fresh but turns to dark yellow after storage. Despite the color fading, the oil does not lose its potency. Approximately 120 secondary metabolites have been identified in chamomile, including 28 terpenoids and 36 flavonoids. Roman chamomile essential oil is mainly constituted from esters of angelic acid and tiglic acid, plus farnesene and a-pinene, which have anti-inflammatory and antibiotic properties.

Considered to be one of the most ancient and versatile essential oils, Roman chamomile essential oil has been used to treat a variety of conditions because of its anti-spasmodic effects due to its high esters content. Today, it’s commonly used in the natural treatment of nervous system problems, eczema, fever, heartburn, gout, anxiety and insomnia.

Proven Benefits of Roman Chamomile Essential Oil

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Fights Anxiety and Depression: Roman chamomile essential oil has been used as a mild sedative to calm nerves and reduce anxiety by promoting relaxation. Inhaling Roman chamomile is one of the best ways to utilize essential oils for anxiety. The fragrance is carried directly to the brain and serves as an emotional trigger. Research shows that Roman chamomile has been used for relief of depressive and anxiety symptoms all over the world, including a number of regions in southern Italy, Sardinia, Morocco and Brazil.

Serves as a Natural Allergy Reliever: Roman chamomile possesses antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and it’s commonly used for hay fever. It has the power to relieve mucus congestion, irritations, swelling and skin conditions that are associated with seasonal allergy symptoms. When applied topically, Roman chamomile oil helps relieve skin irritations that may be due to food allergies or sensitivities.

Helps Alleviate PMS Symptoms: Roman chamomile essential oil serves as a natural mood booster that helps reduce feelings of depression — plus its antispasmodic properties allow it to soothe menstrual cramps and body aches that are commonly associated with PMS, such as headaches and back pain. Its relaxant properties make it a valuable remedy for PMS symptoms, and it can even help clear up acne that may appear as a result of hormone fluctuations.

Reduces Symptoms of Insomnia: The relaxing properties of Roman chamomile promote healthy sleep and fight insomnia. A 2006 case study explored the inhalation effects of Roman chamomile essential oil on mood and sleep. The results found the volunteers experienced more drowsiness and calmness, demonstrating its potential to improve sleep and help enter a restful state. Inhalation of chamomile reduces a stress-induced increase in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone levels.

Boosts Skin Health: Roman chamomile promotes smooth, healthy skin and relieves irritations because of its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. It has been used as a natural remedy for eczema, wounds, ulcers, gout, skin irritations, bruises, burns, canker cores, and even skin conditions like cracked nipples, chicken pox, ear and eye infections, poison ivy, and diaper rash.

Supports Digestive Health: Chamomile is used traditionally for numerous gastrointestinal conditions, including digestive disorders. Roman chamomile essential oil contains anodyne compounds that are antispasmodic and can be used to treat or relieve digestive issues, such as gas, leaky gut, acid reflux, indigestion, diarrhea and vomiting. It’s especially helpful in dispelling gas, soothing the stomach and relaxing the muscles so food can move through the intestines with ease. Because of its relaxing properties, Roman chamomile can also be used internally and topically to get rid of nausea.

Promotes Heart Health: Roman chamomile provides cardiovascular protection because of its high levels of flavonoids, which have been shown to significantly reduce mortality from coronary heart disease when taken internally. Because of the flavonoids present in Roman chamomile essential oil, it may lower blood pressure and have a relaxing effect on the heart.

May Relieve Arthritic Pain: A study in human volunteers demonstrated that chamomile flavonoids and essential oils penetrate below the surface into deeper skin layers. This is important for their use as topical anti-inflammatory agents that can effectively treat arthritic pain. When applied topically or added to a warm water bath, Roman chamomile oil helps reduce pain in the lower back, knees, wrists, fingers and other problematic areas.

Gentle Enough for Children: For centuries, mothers have used chamomile to calm crying children, reduce fevers, eliminate earaches and soothe upset stomachs. It’s often called the “kid calmer” because of its ability to help children with ADD/ADHD, and it’s one of the gentlest essential oils on the planet, making it great for infants and children.

Displays Anticancer Activity: Studies evaluating chamomile on pre-clinical models of skin, prostate, breast and ovarian cancer have shown promising growth inhibitory effects. In a 2007 study conducted at Case Western Reserve University in Ohio, chamomile extracts were shown to cause minimal growth inhibitory effects on normal cells but significant reductions in cell viability in various human cancer cell lines. Chamomile exposure induced apoptosis in cancer cells but not in normal cells at similar doses. The study represents the first reported demonstration of the anticancer effects of chamomile.

In addition to these Roman chamomile essential oil benefits, preliminary research suggests that chamomile may also help treat hemorrhoids, have a protective effect on pancreatic beta cells in diminishing hyperglycemia-related oxidative stress, relieve symptoms of vaginitis (vaginal inflammation), treat the common cold, and relieve sore throat and hoarseness.

How to Use Roman Chamomile Essential Oil – Roman chamomile essential oil is available in health stores and online. It can be diffused, applied to the skin topically and taken internally. Here are some easy ways to use Roman chamomile oil:

  • To fight anxiety and depression, diffuse 5 drops, or inhale it directly from the bottle.
  • To improve digestion and leaky gut, apply 2–4 drops topically to the abdomen. When diluted with a carrier oil like coconut oil, it can even be used in low doses for children with colic and diarrhea.
  • For a restful sleep, diffuse chamomile oil next to bed, rub 1–2 drops onto the temples or inhale it directly from the bottle.
  • To help calm children, diffuse Roman chamomile oil at home or dilute 1–2 drops with coconut oil and apply the mixture topically to the area in need (such as the temples, stomach, wrists, back of neck or bottoms of the feet).
  • To use as a home remedy for acne, treat various skin conditions and combat the signs of aging, add 2–3 drops to a clean cotton ball and apply chamomile oil to the area of concern, or add 5 drops to a face wash. If you have very sensitive skin, dilute chamomile with a carrier oil before applying it topically. (15)
  • To promote heart health, apply 2–4 drops topically over the heart or take internally by placing it under the tongue.
  • To ease nausea, inhale Roman chamomile directly from the bottle, or combine it with ginger, peppermint and lavender oil and diffuse. It can also be used topically on temples to help with nausea.

Roman Chamomile Essential Oil Precautions: Because Roman chamomile oil is an emmenagogue, which means that it stimulates blood flow in the pelvic area, it should not be used during pregnancy.

Possible Interactions: If you currently take any of the following drugs, you should not use chamomile without first talking to your health care provider.

  • Blood thinning medications (anticoagulants and antiplatelets): Chamomile may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with blood-thinners such as warfarin (Coumadin), clopidogrel (Plavix), and aspirin.
  • Sedatives: Chamomile can make these drugs stronger, including:
  • Anti-seizure drugs, such as phenytoin (Dilantin) and valproic acid (Depakote)
  • Barbiturates
  • Benzodiazepines, such as alprazolam (Xanax) and diazepam (Valium)
  • Drugs to treat insomnia, such as zolpidem (Ambien), zaleplon (Sonata), eszopiclone (Lunesta), and ramelteon (Rozerem)
  • Tricyclic antidepressants, such as amitriptyline (Elavil)
  • Alcohol
  • The same is true of sedative herbs, such as valerian, kava, and catnip.
  • Blood pressure medications: Chamomile may lower blood pressure slightly. Taking it with drugs for high blood pressure could cause blood pressure to drop too low.
  • Diabetes medications: Chamomile may lower blood sugar. Taking it with diabetes drugs could raise the risk of hypoglycemia or low blood sugar.
  • Other drugs: Because chamomile is broken down by the liver, it may interact with other drugs that are broken down the same way. o weeks at a time and use only the highest quality essential oil.

References:

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chamaemelum_nobile
  2. https://draxe.com/roman-chamomile-essential-oil/
  3. https://www.aromaweb.com/essential-oils/roman-chamomile-oil.asp
  4. http://www.umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/herb/roman-chamomile
  5. https://articles.mercola.com/herbal-oils/roman-chamomile-oil.aspx
  6. https://www.mountainroseherbs.com/products/chamomile-roman-essential-oil/profile
  7. https://nccih.nih.gov/health/chamomile/ataglance.htm
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8105262/
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8073060/
  10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2995283/
  11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17939735/
  12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19846929/
  13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK92761/
  14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9703700/
  15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23122119
  16. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3210003/
  17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21132119
  18. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3600408/
  19. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/381381/
  20. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22894890
  21. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3719301/
  22. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0962456206000245
  23. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15863883/
  24. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2995283/
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  26. S. R. Srinivas. Atlas of Essential Oils. (New York: Srinivas, 1986).
  27. F. Zani, G. Massimo, S. Benvenuti, et al. Studies on the Genotoxic Properties of Essential Oils with Bacillus subtilis Rec-assay and Salmonella/Microsome Reversion Assay. (Planta Med. 57, 1991), 237-241.
  28. B.M. Lawrence, Progress in Essential Oils. (Perfumer & Flavorist 23 no. 6, 1998)
  29. Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young, Essential Oil Safety (Second Edition. United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2014), 244.
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  31. Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes AL. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2000;57(13):1221-1227.
  32. Hur MH, Han SH. Clinical trial of aromatherapy on postpartum mother’s perineal healing. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2004;34(1):53-62.
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  37. Zhao J, Khan SI, Wang M, et al. Octulosonic acid derivatives from Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) with activities against inflammation and metabolic disorder. J Nat Prod. 2014;77(3):509-15.
  38. Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, Solutions Acupuncture, a private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.
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