Licorice Root

By The original uploader was Jeansef at French Wikipedia. – Transferred from fr.wikipedia to Commons., CC BY-SA 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2772919

Licorice Root (Glycyrrhiza glabra)

Common Names:  licorice root, licorice, liquorice, sweet root, gan cao, gan-zao, Chinese licorice

Latin Name: Glycyrrhiza glabra, Glycyrrhiza uralensis

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Liquorice (British English) or licorice (American English) is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra from which a sweet flavor can be extracted. The liquorice plant is an herbaceous perennial legume native to southern Europe and parts of Asia, such as India. It is not botanically related to anise, star anise, or fennel, which are sources of similar flavoring compounds. Liquorice flavors are used as candies or sweeteners, particularly in some European and Middle Eastern countries.

Found in Mother Jai’s Heartburn Relief Tea, order yours below.

History of Licorice

The word “liquorice” is derived (via the Old French licoresse) from the Greek γλυκύρριζα (glukurrhiza), meaning “sweet root”, from γλυκύς (glukus), “sweet” and ῥίζα (rhiza), “root”, the name provided by Dioscorides. It is usually spelled “liquorice” in Commonwealth usage, but “licorice” in the United States.

It is one of the most widely used herbs worldwide and is the single most used herb in Traditional Chinese Medicine today. It was used by the Egyptians as a flavoring for a drink called Mai-sus, and large quantities were found in the tomb of King Tut for his trip into the afterlife. Pliny the Elder recommended it to clear the voice and alleviate thirst and hunger.

Dioscides, when traveling with Alexander the Great, recommended that his troops carry and use it to help with stamina for long marches, as well as for thirst in areas of drought. In the Middle Ages it was taken to alleviate the negative effects of highly spicy or overcooked food.

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It was also used for flavoring tobacco, and as a foaming agent in fire extinguishers and beer. In a recent survey of Western medical herbalists, licorice ranked as the 10th most important herb used in clinical practice.

G. glabra from Koehler’s Medicinal-Plants

An astonishing number of Chinese herbal formulas (over 5,000) use it to sweeten teas and to “harmonize” contrasting herbs. Its first documented use dates back to the time of the great Chinese herbal master Zhang Zhong Zhing, about 190 AD, but it was certainly used for many centuries prior to this.

In 1914 the Chicago Licorice Company began to sell Black Vines, the first in a very long line of licorice based modern candies.

Chemical Composition

The scent of this root comes from a complex and variable combination of compounds, of which anethole is up to 3% of total volatiles. Much of the sweetness in liquorice comes from glycyrrhizin, which has a sweet taste, 30–50 times the sweetness of sugar. The sweetness is very different from sugar, being less instant, tart, and lasting longer. The isoflavene glabrene and the isoflavane glabridin, found in the roots of liquorice, are phytoestrogens.

Medicinal Uses of Licorice Root

The chemicals contained in licorice are thought to decrease swelling, thin mucus secretions, decrease cough, and increase the chemicals in our body that heal ulcers.

It can be taken by mouth for various digestive system complaints including stomach ulcers, heartburn, colic, and ongoing inflammation of the lining of the stomach (chronic gastritis).

Some people take licorice by mouth for sore throat, bronchitis, cough, and infections caused by bacteria or viruses.

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Licorice is also taken by mouth for Addison’s disease, a type of diabetes caused by a hormone deficiency (diabetes insipidus), menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), liver disorders, malaria, tuberculosis, high potassium levels in the blood, food poisoning, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), a condition in which there is too much muscle tone (hypertonia), abscesses, recovery after surgery, rash, high cholesterol.

It is recommended to treat respiratory problems. Taking licorice as an oral supplement can help the body produce healthy mucus. Increasing phlegm production may seem counter intuitive to a healthy bronchial system. However, the opposite is true. The production of clean, healthy phlegm keeps the respiratory system functioning without old, sticky mucus clogging it.

Licorice is sometimes taken by mouth along with the herbs Panax ginseng and Bupleurum falcatum to improve the function of the adrenal glands, especially in people who have taken steroid drugs long-term. Steroids tend to suppress the activity of the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands produce important hormones that regulate the body’s response to stress.

Licorice is also taken by mouth in combination with peony to increase fertility in women with a hormonal disorder called polycystic ovary syndrome, to treat people with abnormal levels of a hormone prolactin, for muscle cramps, and to reduce cancer pain. In combination with other herbs, licorice is also used to treat prostate cancer and the skin disorder known as eczema. Licorice is also taken in combination with andrographis, Siberian ginseng, and schisandra to treat familial Mediterranean fever. This hereditary condition is characterized by recurrent and painful swelling in the chest, stomach, or joints. A formulation containing licorice root along with slippery elm bark, lactulose, and oat bran has been used for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Some people use licorice as a shampoo to reduce oiliness in their hair. It is also applied as a gel for itchy, inflamed skin (eczema), as a solution to stop bleeding, as a patch in the mouth or as a gargle for canker sores, as a cream for psoriasis, weight loss, or a skin condition characterized by brown spots (melisma), as a gargle for recovery after surgery, and as a paste for dental plaque.

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Licorice is used intravenously (by IV) to treat hepatitis B and C, as well as mouth sores (lichen planus) in people with hepatitis C.

Recovery after surgery. Research suggests that sucking on a single lozenge containing licorice (Sualin, Hamdard Pharma, India) beginning 30 minutes before having a tube inserted through the mouth into the trachea reduces cough following surgery by about 50%. Also, gargling with a licorice fluid before intubation reduces complications when the breathing tube is removed.

Bleeding. Early research suggests that applying a specific product containing alpinia, licorice, thyme, stinging nettle, and common grape vine (Ankaferd Blood Stopper, Mefar Ilaç Sanayi A.S., Istanbul, Turkey) to the skin reduces bleeding during surgery, but does not reduce time in surgery. Another early study suggests that applying the same product after dental surgery reduces bleeding.

Hepatitis. There is some evidence that certain components in licorice might be effective in treating hepatitis B and hepatitis C when given intravenously (by IV). Early research shows that using a specific IV product (Stronger Neominophagen C, Minophagen Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd) seems to reduce death by about 50%. However, the studies involved too few patients to draw firm conclusions.

High cholesterol. Early research suggests that taking licorice root extract daily for 1 month reduces total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL or “bad”) cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in people with high cholesterol.

High potassium levels. Some research suggests that certain components in licorice decrease potassium levels in people with diabetes or kidney problems.

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Hot flashes during menopause. Some early research shows that taking licorice root extract can reduce the number and intensity of hot flashes in menopausal women. But other early research shows that taking licorice root extract does not significantly reduce the number or intensity of hot flashes.

Muscle cramps. Early research suggests that taking a specific product containing licorice and peony (Shakuyaku-kanzo-to) might reduce muscle cramps in people with liver disease (hepatic cirrhosis) or in people undergoing treatment for kidney failure (hemodialysis).

Liver disease not associated with alcohol use (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease). Early research suggests that taking 2 grams of licorice root extract daily for 2 months reduces test markers of liver injury in patients with liver disease not caused by drinking alcohol.

Pain. Early research suggests that taking a combination of licorice root and peony root with Taiwanese tonic vegetable soup containing lily bulb, lotus seed, and jujube fruit reduces pain in cancer patients.

Psoriasis. Early evidence suggests that applying a cream containing licorice and milk to the skin for 4 weeks does not reduce the amount of standard therapy needed, but does seem to improve skin peeling in patients with psoriasis.

Weight loss. There is conflicting information about the use of licorice for weight loss. Licorice seems to reduce body fat. However, it causes water retention that can offset any change in body weight.Other research suggests that taking a specific licorice product (Glavonoid) daily for 8 weeks has no effect on weight or body fat.

Caution Must Be Taken with Licorice Root

Liquorice extracts have been used in herbalism and traditional medicine. Excessive consumption of liquorice (more than 2 mg/kg/day of pure glycyrrhizinic acid, a liquorice component) may result in adverse effects, such as hypokalemia, increased blood pressure, and muscle weakness.

The United States Food and Drug Administration believes that foods containing liquorice and its derivatives (including glycyrrhizin) are safe if not consumed excessively. Other jurisdictions have suggested no more than 100 mg to 200 mg of glycyrrhizin per day, the equivalent of about 70 to 150 g (2.5 to 5.3 oz) of liquorice. Liquorice should not be used during pregnancy.

An increase in intake of liquorice can cause many toxic effects. Hyper-mineralocorticosteroid syndrome can occur when the body retains sodium, loses potassium altering biochemical and hormonal activities. Some of these activities include lower aldosterone level, decline of the renin-angiotensin system and increased levels of the atrial natriuretic hormone in order to compensate the variations in homoeostasis.

Some other symptoms of toxicity include electrolyte imbalance, edema, increased blood pressure, weight gain, heart problems, and weakness. Individuals will experience certain symptoms based on the severity of toxicity. Some other complaints include fatigue, shortness of breath, renal failure, and paralysis.

By Pharaoh han – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=30860013

Dosage and Forms

Liquid extract: Licorice extract is the most commonly found form of licorice. It’s used as a commercial sweetener in candies and beverages. Licorice extract consumption by an individual should not exceed 30 mg/mL of glycyrrhizic acid. Ingesting more could cause unwanted side effects.

Powder: Health food stores and online specialty retailers sell licorice powder. Combined with a gel base, it can become a topical ointment that clears the skin. In its powder form, licorice is especially helpful in treating eczema and acne. You can also pour the powder into vegetable capsules and ingest them orally. The recommended dosage of licorice root is less than 75 milligrams per day, according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines.

Tea: Licorice plant leaves, dried and crushed into a tea, have become popular. You can purchase these teas at supermarkets and health food stores. Teas are used to promote digestive, respiratory, and adrenal gland health. When you see herbal teas for “bronchial wellness” and “cleanse and detox,” they usually contain forms of licorice. The popular throat remedy known as Throat Coat tea is a combination of marshmallow root, licorice root, and elm bark. It’s not recommended that people ingest more than 8 ounces of licorice tea per day.

DGL: licorice with glycyrrhizin removed, which is a safer form. DGL should contain no more than 2 percent glycyrrhizin. This form is recommended for gastrointestinal symptoms as long-term intake may be needed. DGL is available in chewable tablets, capsules, tea, and powder. Consume no more than 5 grams of DGL per day.

References:

Lemon Balm

By Andrea_44 from Leamington, Ontario , Canada – Lemon Balm, CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=54215765

Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis)

Lemon Balm, also known as Melissa, balm mint, or common balm that is an herbaceous and perennial plant of the mint family. The plant is used in herbal remedies, teas, perfumes, and as flavoring. It is also known as bee attractant because it is used to attract bees when creating a hive for honey production. Melissa is Greek for honey bee.

It is used for digestive problems, including upset stomach, bloating, intestinal gas (flatulence), vomiting, and colic; for pain, including menstrual cramps, headache and toothache; and for mental disorders, including hysteria and melancholia.

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Many people believe it has calming effects, so they take it for anxiety, sleep problems, and restlessness. Lemon balm is also used for Alzheimer’s disease, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), an autoimmune disease involving the thyroid (Graves’ disease), swollen airways, rapid heartbeat due to nervousness, high blood pressure, sores, tumors, and insect bites.

This wonderful plant contains the flavonoids, quercitrin and rhamnocitrin; the 7-glucosides, apigenin, kaempferol, quercetin, and luteolin; phenolic acids and tannins; rosmarinic acid and glycosidically bound caffeic and chlorogenic acids; and the triterpenes, ursolic and oleanolic acids.

The leaf is full of quercetin, which is a naturally occurring chemical compound produced by the body to prevent allergies. People with allergies do not produce enough quercetin.

Research on Benefits of Lemon Balm

Anxiety: when taken in combination with other herbs can reduce anxiety symptoms.

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Colic in Breast-Fed Infants: when combined with fennel and German chamomile reduced crying time.

Dementia: supplementing lemon balm by mouth three times a day has proven to improve symptoms of mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease.

Herpes Simplex viral infections: lemon balm lip balm has proven effective at shorten healing time and reduce symptoms and recurring infections.

Insomnia: lemon balm supplementation twice daily has shown improvement in sleep in people with sleep disorders.

Stress: research shows that taking a single dose of lemon balm reduces anxiety, improves memory, and increases alertness. Has been proven to reduce child anxiety when visiting the dentist. Low doses are best, higher doses have been known to increase anxiety.

Steam distilled from the fresh aerial parts of the Melissa plant, USDA Certified Organic Melissa Essential Oil is revered amongst oil users. This high-quality Organic Melissa Essential Oil is 100% pure and undiluted with absolutely no additives or fillers.

When you open a bottle of Organic Melissa your senses will be taken over by the fresh, lemony scent that is uplifting and calming during times of gloom and extreme worry. Only a small amount is necessary to enjoy its incredible therapeutic properties.

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Organic Melissa can help ease occasional digestive upset, help calm the mind in order to fall asleep more peacefully and relieve tension in the head or neck.

Add 1 drop of Organic Melissa Essential Oil to your Aroma Diffuser, personal inhaler, or diffuser necklace to create a peaceful atmosphere that can help reduce worry or calm the mind during times of emotional gloom.

Dilute at a maximum of 1% with your favorite carrier oil and rub on the abdomen in a clockwise motion when occasional digestive upset occurs.

References:

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lemon_balm
  2. https://www.planttherapy.com/melissa-organic-essential-oil?v=1902&gclid=Cj0KCQiAzKnjBRDPARIsAKxfTRAHe1B7Fsi_m8cKZ7ZpxC_0wwFZF69A8ujeenAU95lwmB75tdeLt0EaAk3fEALw_wcB
  3. https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-437/lemon-balm
  4. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/melissa-officinalis
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5871149/
  6. https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=MEOF2
  7. https://pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?latinname=Melissa+officinalis
  8. https://www.medicinenet.com/lemon_balm_melissa_officinalis-oral/article.htm
  9. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/7860456/
  10. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/7144806_Lemon_balm_Melissa_officinalis_L_an_evidence-based_systematic_review_by_the_Natural_Standard_Research_Collaboration
  11. https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=32565#null
  12. http://www.fao.org/3/X5043E/x5043E0i.htm

Kids & Germs

little boy playing in the sand
Photo by Kaboompics .com on Pexels.com

Your Kids + Germs = Healthy Future

We recommend all children are exposed to as many germs as possible so as they age their bodies are prepared for anything. Over sanitizing and sterilization does not make for strong healthy children. Ever wonder why Salmonella and E. Coli are such a problem for people now? Their bodies have not been exposed to those germs due to over sanitization and now they have no defenses. Here are some articles on why it is so important for your children to be exposed to everything at an early age.

What are some things that parents get wrong?

Some of the main things are over-sterilizing their environment, keeping their children from ever getting dirty. So going out into the backyard and playing in the mud, and then as soon as they’re filthy, bringing them in and sterilizing their hands with antiseptic wipes, and then making sure that none of the dirt gets near their faces. Also, keeping them away from animals. The dogs and cats, sure, but also, other animals. It’s fine to wash their hands if there’s a cold or a flu virus around, but if they’re interacting with a dog, and the dog licks their face, that’s not a bad thing. In fact that could be extremely beneficial for the child’s health.

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What about hand sanitizer? Good or bad?

Usually bad. Petroleum based alcohol is harmful to everyone, but especially children. Hot, soapy water is fine. Even mildly warm, soapy water is fine, and it is less damaging to the child’s overall health.

How about the five-second rule? The idea that if something falls on the ground and is there for under five seconds, it’s clean.

The five-second rule doesn’t exist. It takes milliseconds for microbes to attach themselves to a sticky piece of jammy toast, for example. But it makes no difference. Unless you dropped it in an area where you think they could be a high risk of extremely dangerous pathogens, which in every modern American home is virtually impossible, then there’s no risk to your child.

Wash a pacifier or lick it if it falls on the ground?

Lick it. A study of over 180 children showed that parents who licked the pacifier and put it back in — their kids developed less allergies, less asthma, less eczema. Overall, their health was stronger and more robust.

Are things like allergies an unintended consequence of trying to protect our kids too much?

Absolutely. In the past, we would have eaten a lot more fermented foods, which contain bacteria. We would have allowed our children to be exposed to animals and plants and soil on a much more regular basis. Now we live indoors. We sterilize our surfaces. Their immune systems then become hyper-sensitized. You have these little soldier cells in your body called neutrophils, and when they spend too long going around looking for something to do, they become grumpy and pro-inflammatory. And so when they finally see something that’s foreign, like a piece of pollen, they become explosively inflammatory. They go crazy. That’s what triggers asthma and eczema and often times, food allergies.

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Prof Gilbert also studied the immune profiles of Amish children to support his thesis. The 2016 study found significantly lower rates of asthma in immune profiles of Amish children who lived on small farms that were “rich in microbes.”

The immune systems of our ancestors were strengthened by a multitude of microbial interactions. Now, when there aren’t enough, the immune system starts to age “which can make it more likely to have a huge response to a simple allergen,” Prof Gilbert adds.

“Sterilizing your home like a hospital could lead your child to have a severely hyper sensitized immune system leaving them open to allergies and asthma, even neurodevelopmental problems,” Prof Gilbert says.

Hygiene Hypothesis

A mounting body of research suggests that exposing infants to germs may offer them greater protection from illnesses such as allergies and asthma later on in life.

This line of thinking, called the “hygiene hypothesis,” holds that when exposure to parasites, bacteria, and viruses is limited early in life, children face a greater chance of having allergies, asthma, and other autoimmune diseases during adulthood.

In fact, kids with older siblings, who grew up on a farm, or who attended day care early in life seem to show lower rates of allergies.

Just as a baby’s brain needs stimulation, input, and interaction to develop normally, the young immune system is strengthened by exposure to everyday germs so that it can learn, adapt, and regulate itself, notes Thom McDade, PhD, associate professor and director of the Laboratory for Human Biology Research at Northwestern University.

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In a recent study, McDade’s team found that children who were exposed to more animal feces and had more cases of diarrhea before age 2 had less incidence of inflammation in the body as they grew into adulthood. Inflammation has been linked to many chronic adulthood illnesses, such as heart disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s.

Purging Germs: Health Booster or Bad Idea?

Most of the germs lurking about our environment and that live on our bodies are not only harmless; they’ve been with us for millennia, says Martin Blaser, MD, professor of internal medicine at New York University.

As human behavior has changed over the past half century, many microbes, such as some that live in the gut, are disappearing.

“These perform important physiological functions but because of modern life they are changing and some are disappearing,” Blaser says. “Those disappearances have consequences — some good, some bad.”

When we overly sanitize infants’ environments to protect them from illness, we may instead be depriving them the opportunity to build a strong immune system.

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In addition to overzealous hygiene campaigns that may prevent kids from exposure to natural microorganisms that are good for them, there are other practices — like the overuse of antibiotics — that threaten to make us less healthy, not more.

Dirty Kids: How Germs Can Be Your Child’s Best Friend

To understand why I’m not too concerned about germs, and why you shouldn’t be either, you need to grasp a concept called the “hygiene hypothesis,” along with two other important hypotheses. In a nutshell, these hypotheses hold that when exposure to parasites, bacteria and viruses is limited early in life, children face a greater chance of having allergies, asthma and other autoimmune diseases during adulthood. But we’re going to delve into them in a bit more detail.

Three Important Hypotheses

Although the idea that exposure to certain infections may decrease the risk of allergy is not new, Dr. David Strachan was one of the first to formally propose it as the “hygiene hypothesis” in scientific literature, in a 1989 article in the British Medical Journal. In the paper, Strachan pointed out that the allergic diseases hay fever and eczema were less common in children from larger families, and that children from larger families were probably exposed to more germs through their siblings. Since then, epidemiological studies have confirmed the protective effect of not just large family size, but also of growing up on a farm.

Then, in a 2003 article in a journal of immunology, Dr. Graham Rook proposed the “old friends” hypothesis, arguing that the exposures necessary to increase immunity are not actually developed in childhood or during any other recently evolved infectious exposure, but instead are derived from microbes present since hunter-gatherer times, when the human immune system was evolving. Rook proposed that the microbes that co-evolved with mammalian immune systems are ancient, and that we have become so dependent on them that our immune systems can neither develop or function properly without these internal microbes. These microbes include species that inhabit our skin, gut and respiratory tract, and also inhabit the animals we live with, and even organisms such as symbiotic bacteria, viruses and helminths (aka parasites or worms) that establish chronic infections or carrier states that we can actually tolerate and that help us develop specific immunoregulatory responses.

Finally, in the past several years, the “microbial diversity” hypothesis has emerged, which holds that the health and diversity of the bacterial species in our gut mucosa a key factor for strengthening the immune system (vs. simply colonization with a limited number of bacterial species). This makes sense, since Dr. Rook compared the embryonic immune system to a computer that contains many programs but sparse data. During gestation and childhood exposure to diverse organisms, the immune system builds a “database” that allows it to identify and respond to harmful agents in the internal or external environment. This microbial diversity hypothesis is also why I recommend vaginal delivery of babies (vs. C-section) when it’s an option — due to the importance of exposing a newborn baby to the variety of bacterial species in the vaginal tract.

Each of these hypotheses is based on the general concept of upregulation of the body’s T cells in response to infectious agents — and appears to be well supported by epidemiological data. Studies have proven that a variety of immunological and autoimmune diseases are much less common in developing countries than industrialized countries — and that immigrants to industrialized countries from developing countries develop immunological disorders such as asthma and chronic inflammatory disorders in relation to the length of time since arrival in the industrialized area. Furthermore, while there’s no evidence to support the idea that reducing our modern practices of cleanliness and hygiene would have any impact on rates of chronic inflammatory and allergic disorders, there is a significant amount of evidence that it actually increases the risks of infectious diseases!

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References:

  1. https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/07/16/537075018/dirt-is-good-why-kids-need-exposure-to-germs
  2. https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/why-its-important-to-expose-kids-to-germs-scientist-explains-jack-gilbert-children-babies-immune-a7845031.html
  3. https://www.webmd.com/parenting/features/kids-and-dirt-germs#1
  4. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/ben-greenfield/germs-kids_b_4951388.html
  5. http://www.wbur.org/npr/537075018/dirt-is-good-why-kids-need-exposure-to-germs
  6. https://kidshealth.org/en/kids/germs.html
  7. http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20151118-can-you-be-too-clean
  8. https://abcnews.go.com/Health/Diet/story?id=1167623&page=1
  9. https://www.collective-evolution.com/2017/07/20/dirt-is-good-why-children-need-more-exposure-to-germs/
  10. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-4706400/Expose-children-germs-boost-immune-system.html
  11. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/17/well/family/too-clean-for-our-childrens-good.html
  12. https://www.nature.com/news/early-exposure-to-germs-has-lasting-benefits-1.10294
  13. https://wellnessmama.com/12908/kids-need-dirt/
  14. http://www.100thseed.org/health/simple-tips-keep-child-healthy-toxic-world/
  15. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2018/06/05/early-microbial-exposure-prevents-leukemia.aspx
  16. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/03/120322142157.htm

Lemongrass Oil

@Hakcipta Yosri – Dibebaskan di bawah {CC|Version 2}

Lemongrass Essential Oil (Cymbopogon citratus & flexuosus)

Lemongrass is a fibrous herb with a fragrance similar to lemons that belong to the family Poaceae, which consists of 55 other varieties of grasses, two of which are popularly used. The first, Cymbopogon flexuosus, and is most commonly used for producing essential oils. The second, Cymbopogon citratus, is the lemongrass most often used for culinary purposes.

East Indian lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus), also called Cochin grass or Malabar grass, is native to Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, India, Sri Lanka, Burma, and Thailand, while West Indian lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) is native to South Asia and maritime Southeast Asia. While both can be used interchangeably, C. citratus is more suitable for cooking. In India, C. citratus is used both as a medical herb and in perfumes.

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Cymbopogon is a genus of Asian, African, Australian, and tropical island plants in the grass family. Some species (particularly Cymbopogon citratus) are commonly cultivated as culinary and medicinal herbs because of their scent, resembling that of lemons (Citrus limon). Common names include lemon grass, barbed wire grass, silky heads, citronella grass, cha de Dartigalongue, fever grass, tanglad, hierba Luisa, or gavati chahapati, amongst many others.

Uses for Lemongrass

It is widely used as a culinary herb in Asian cuisines and also as a medicinal herb in India. It has a subtle citrus flavor and can be dried and powdered, or used fresh. It is commonly used in teas, soups, and curries. It is also suitable for use with poultry, fish, beef, and seafood. It is often used as a tea in African countries such as Togo, south eastern Ghana Volta Region and the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Latin American countries such as Mexico.

Consuming this herb is known to improve circulation, promote digestion, provide relief to fever, stabilize menstrual cycles, increase immunity, treat infections, and act as an insecticide.

Despite its ability to repel some insects, such as mosquitoes, its oil is commonly used as a “lure” to attract honey bees. “Lemongrass works conveniently as well as the pheromone created by the honeybee’s Nasonov gland, also known as attractant pheromones. Because of this, lemongrass oil can be used as a lure when trapping swarms or attempting to draw the attention of hived bees.”

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You will find Lemongrass Essential Oil in many of Mother Jai’s Aroma Sprays

Historically used as a pesticide and preservative, it was put on the ancient palm-leaf manuscripts found in India to preserve the texts. It is used at the Oriental Research Institute Mysore, the French Institute of Pondicherry, the Association for the Preservation of the Saint Thomas Christian Heritage in Kerala, and many other manuscript collections in India. The oil also injects natural fluidity into the brittle palm leaves, and the hydrophobic nature of the oil keeps the manuscripts dry so the text is not lost to decay due to humidity.

Lemongrass essential oil contains beneficial terpene components that actively work on different parts of the body to remedy a range of conditions. The main terpene compounds in lemongrass essential oil include citronellal, nerol, limonene, geraniol, geranyl acetate, citral, and myrcene.

  • Citral has antiviral, antiseptic and antioxidant properties.
  • Citronellal has antiviral, antimicrobial, antifungal and sedative properties.
  • Geraniol has antioxidant, antibacterial, antiseptics and analgesic properties.
  • Geranyl acetate has antioxidant, antibacterial, antiseptics and analgesic properties.
  • Limonene has digestive, appetite suppressing, detoxifying and antioxidant properties.
  • Neral has antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and apoptotic properties.
  • Nerol has antioxidant, sedative, and anti-inflammatory properties.
  • Myrcene has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibiotic, and sedative properties.

This amazing essential oil is a source of essential vitamins such as vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, folate and vitamin C. It also provides essential minerals such as magnesium, phosphorous, manganese, copper, potassium, calcium, zinc and iron.

Beneficial Uses of Lemongrass Essential Oil

The health benefits of lemongrass essential oil can be attributed to its beneficial properties as an analgesic, antidepressant, antimicrobial, antipyretic, antiseptic, astringent, bactericidal, carminative, deodorant, diuretic, febrifuge, fungicidal, galactagogue, insecticidal, nervine, sedative, and a tonic. Lemongrass is versatile, and its uses range from cooking to cosmetics, to cleaning products, to medicines. Lemongrass essential oil helps to cure cellulite, fungal infections, and digestive problems, while simultaneously reducing excessive perspiration.

Antianxiety: High blood pressure is a common side effect of stress. Many studies have shown that aromatherapy eases stress and anxiety. Combining aromatherapy with massage may bring greater benefits. A 2015 study evaluated the effects of lemongrass and sweet almond massage oil during massage. Study participants who received a massage using the oil once a week for three weeks had lower diastolic blood pressure than those in the control group. Systolic blood pressure and pulse rate weren’t affected.

Antibacterial: is used as a natural remedy to heal wounds and help prevent infection. Research from 2010 found lemongrass essential oil was effective against a variety of drug-resistant bacteria.

Antidiarrheal: Diarrhea is often just a bother, but it can also cause dehydration. Over-the-counter diarrhea remedies can come with unpleasant side effects — like constipation — leading some people to turn to natural remedies. According to a 2006 study, lemongrass may help slow diarrhea. The study showed that the oil reduced fecal output in mice with castor oil-induced diarrhea, possibly by slowing intestinal motility.

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Antifungal: Fungi are organisms like yeast and mold. According to an older study from 1996, lemongrass oil was an effective deterrent against four types of fungi. One type causes athlete’s foot, ringworm, and jock itch. Researchers found that, to be effective, at least 2.5 percent of the solution must be lemongrass oil.

Anti-inflammatory: Chronic inflammation is thought to cause many health problems. These include arthritis, cardiovascular disease, and even cancer. It contains citral, an anti-inflammatory compound. According to a 2014 study on animals, lemongrass essential oil showed powerful anti-inflammatory abilities on mice with carrageenan-induced paw edema. The oil also demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects when applied topically on mice with ear edema.

Antioxidant: Antioxidants help your body fight off free radicals that damage cells. Research has shown that lemongrass essential oil helps hunt free radicals. According to a 2011 study, lemongrass oil mouthwash showed strong antioxidant abilities. Researchers suggest it’s a potential complementary therapy for non-surgical dental procedures and gingivitis.

Antipyretic: fever reducing. This is quite similar to a febrifuge but it is effective on very high fever as well. This oil can bring down fever when it is tending to reach dangerous levels. This property of lemongrass, which comes from its essential oils, is widely known and utilized.

Antiseptic: The antiseptic properties of this oil make it a good application for external and internal wounds as well as a useful ingredient in antiseptic lotions and creams.

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Antispasmodic: its ability to help relieve muscle aches, cramps and spasms. It may also help to improve circulation.

Carminative: reducing gas, alleviating flatulence. It not only helps to remove gas from the intestine but also stops further gas formation. Furthermore, it provides the excess gas a safe downward passage by relaxing the muscles in the abdominal region.

Deodorizer: a natural and safe air freshener or deodorizer. You can add the oil to water and use it as a mist or use an oil diffuser or vaporizer. By adding other essential oils, like lavender or tea tree oil, you can customize your own natural fragrance. Cleaning with lemongrass essential oil is another great idea because not only does it naturally deodorize your home, but it also helps to sanitize it.

Digestive: Lemongrass is used as a folk remedy for a number of digestive problems, ranging from stomachaches to gastric ulcers. According to a 2012 study on mice, lemongrass essential oil helped prevent gastric ulcers, a common cause of stomach pain. Lemongrass is also a common ingredient in herbal teas and supplements for nausea. Although most herbal products use dried lemongrass leaves, using the essential oil for aromatherapy may provide similar benefits.

Diuretic: increases the frequency of urination. When a person urinates, fats are lost from the body, because 4% of the volume of urine is composed of them. Obviously, the more you urinate, the more you lose fat. Urination also promotes digestion and inhibits the formation of excess gas. It removes excess water from the body and reduces swelling. The most important contribution of this oil is that it removes toxins from the body, not to mention its ability to reduce blood pressure. That is the reason why most pharmaceutical medications for lowering blood pressure induce frequent urination. Urination also helps clean the kidneys.

Galactagogue: increases the formation of milk in the breasts. It also enhances the quality of the milk. This property is very helpful for lactating mothers and babies who need this vital source of food. Babies are prone to infections, so the antimicrobial and antibacterial properties of lemongrass oil are also absorbed in the milk, thus indirectly helping the baby avoid such infections.

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Glucose Regulation: may help reduce blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes, according to a 2007 study on rats. For the study, the rats were treated with a daily oral dose of 125 to 500 milligrams (mg) of lemongrass oil for 42 days. Results showed lemongrass oil lowered blood sugar levels. It also changed lipid parameters while increasing so-called good cholesterol levels (HDL).

Hair Care: can strengthen your hair follicles, so if you are struggling with hair loss or an itchy and irritated scalp, massage a few drops of lemongrass oil into your scalp for two minutes and then rinse. The soothing and bacteria-killing properties will leave your hair shiny, fresh and odor-free.

Immunostimulant: stimulating the function of the immune system. It can help to boost your immune system with its antimicrobial and therapeutic properties. In vitro research has also shown that the oil can reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines in the body, which can contribute to illness.

Pain Relief: The citral in lemongrass essential oil may help ease pain as it relieves inflammation. According to a 2017 study on people with rheumatoid arthritis, topical lemongrass oil decreased their arthritis pain. On average, pain levels were gradually reduced from 80 to 50 percent within 30 days.

According to researchers in Australia, native Australian lemongrass may relieve pain caused by headaches and migraines. The researchers believe that a compound in lemongrass called eugenol has similar abilities to aspirin. Eugenol is thought to prevent blood platelets from clumping together. It also releases serotonin. Serotonin is a hormone that regulates mood, sleep, appetite, and cognitive functions.

Sedative: It has great soothing, sedating and calming effects on the mind, cures inflammations, itching of skin and it relieves tension and anxiety. This feature can help patients with insomnia as well.

Skin Care: Add this oil to shampoos, conditioners, deodorants, soaps and lotions. It is an effective cleanser for all skin types; its antiseptic and astringent properties make lemongrass oil perfect for getting even and glowing skin, and thus part of your natural skin care routine. It can sterilize your pores, serve as a natural toner and strengthen your skin tissues. By rubbing this oil into your hair, scalp and body, you can alleviate headaches or muscle pain.

Tonic: It tones all the systems functioning in the body, such as the respiratory system, digestive system, nervous system, and excretory system, and facilitates absorption of nutrients into the body, thus providing strength and boosting the immune system.

Triglyceridemia: reduction of triglycerides (cholesterol) in the blood stream. Statin drugs have this action on the circulatory system. High cholesterol may increase your risk of heart attack and stroke. It’s important to keep your cholesterol levels stable. Lemongrass is traditionally used to treat high cholesterol and manage heart disease. A 2007 study helps support its use for those conditions. The study found lemongrass oil significantly reduced cholesterol in rats who had been fed a high cholesterol diet for 14 days. The positive reaction was dose-dependent, which means that its effects changed when the dose was changed.

How to Use Lemongrass Essential Oil

  • To use lemongrass in aromatherapy, add up to 12 drops of essential oil (depending on your sense of smell) to 1 teaspoon carrier oil such as coconut oil, sweet almond oil, or jojoba oil. Mix into a warm bath or massage into your skin. Never apply essential oils directly to your skin.
  • You can also inhale lemongrass oil directly. Add a few drops to a cotton ball or handkerchief and breathe in the aroma. Some people massage the diluted essential oil into their temples to help relieve headaches.
  • Lemongrass Essential Oil can be helpful when carefully used in very-very low dilution by those that are challenged with acne-prone skin.
  • For Mind and Spirit, Robbie Zeck shares this about Lemongrass Essential Oil: “The intense, radiant energy of Lemongrass inspires expansion on all levels. Whenever there is a sense of restriction or limitation in life, Lemongrass lifts the spirits and gets things moving again.” [Robbi Zeck, ND, The Blossoming Heart: Aromatherapy for Healing and Transformation (Victoria, Australia: Aroma Tours, 2008), 92.]

Possible Side Effects and Risks

Although cold pressed Lemon Essential Oil is phototoxic, steam distilled Lemongrass Essential Oil is not phototoxic. However, Lemongrass Essential Oil is abundant in citral (geranial and neral). It can pose a significant risk of skin sensitization when used over 0.7% in topical applications. A little goes a very long way in topical formulations.

Lemongrass essential oil is highly concentrated. Its side effects aren’t well-studied. In some people, they may be stronger than the side effects of the lemongrass plant.

Lemongrass may cause an allergic reaction or skin irritation when used topically.

Other reported side effects of oral lemongrass include:

  • dizziness
  • drowsiness
  • increased appetite
  • increased urination

Essential oils may be toxic when ingested. You should NEVER ingest lemongrass essential oil.

Lemongrass, in its plant-form, is generally safe to use in food and beverages. Higher amounts may increase your risk of developing side effects. You should also talk to your doctor before use if you:

  • have diabetes or low blood sugar
  • have a respiratory condition, such as asthma
  • have liver disease
  • are undergoing chemotherapy
  • are pregnant
  • are breastfeeding

You shouldn’t use lemongrass as a complementary therapy or in place of your regular treatment for any condition unless under your doctor’s supervision.

References:

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cymbopogon
  2. https://www.healthline.com/health/lemongrass-essential-oil
  3. https://monq.com/eo/essential-oils/lemongrass/
  4. https://www.aromaweb.com/essential-oils/lemongrass-oil.asp
  5. https://draxe.com/lemongrass-essential-oil/
  6. https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/essential-oils/health-benefits-of-lemongrass-essential-oil.html
  7. https://www.up-nature.com/blogs/news/top-30-lemongrass-essential-oil-benefits-and-uses
  8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19292822
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21693164
  10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19656204
  11. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/307583343_Antioxidant_activity_of_lemon_grass_ESSENTIAL_OIL_Cympopogon_citratus_grown_in_North_Indian_plains
  12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3492709/
  13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25242268
  14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3326778/
  15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19662581
  16. https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-719/lemongrass
  17. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22862808
  18. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3326778/
  19. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/5303933_Antifungal_activity_of_the_Lemon_grass_oil_and_citral_against_Candida_spp
  20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3217679/
  21. https://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lemongrass
  22. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3217679/
  23. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26366471
  24. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3217679/
  25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1753786
  26. https://www.britannica.com/science/citral#ref149735
  27. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15796587

Lemon Oil

Lemon Peel Oil (Citrus limon)

Lemon, scientifically called Citrus limon, is a flowering plant that belongs to the Rutaceae family. Lemon plants are grown in many countries all over the world, although they are native to Asia and are believed to have been brought to Europe around 200 A.D. In America, English sailors would use lemons while on the sea to protect themselves from scurvy and conditions caused by bacterial infections.

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The essential oil comes from cold-pressing the peel and not the inner fruit. The peel is actually the most nutrient-dense portion of the lemon because of its fat soluble phytonutrients. Lemon essential oil is composed of many natural compounds, including terpenes, sesquiterpenes, aldehydes, alcohols, esters and sterols.

Lemons and lemon oil are popular because of their refreshing scent and invigorating, purifying and cleaning properties. Research shows that lemon oil contains powerful antioxidants and helps to reduce inflammation, fight bacteria and fungi, boost energy levels and ease digestion.

Major Constituents of Cold Pressed Lemon Peel: (+)-Limonene, B-Pinene, Gamma-Terpinene, a-Terpineol, a-Pinene, and Geranial

BENEFITS OF LEMON (OrganicFacts.net)

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The health benefits of this citrus oil include its ability to treat skin disorders, hair conditions, stress disorders, fever, infections, asthma, obesity, insomnia, stomach problems, and fatigue. All these benefits of lemon can be attributed to its stimulating, calming, carminative, anti-infection, astringent, detoxifying, antiseptic, disinfectant, sleep-inducing, and antifungal properties.

Antidepressant: uplifting and mood enhancing. It has been found to reduce anxiety and assist in relieving the physical symptoms of depression.

Antimicrobial: works as a natural antimicrobial agent because of two dominant compounds found in the oil, limonene and b-pinene. This makes lemon oil a powerful tool in cleaning and food protection.

Antitumoral: limonene, a major component of this essential oil, has anti-tumor and chemotherapeutic effects. Oral feeding of lemon has resulted in significant regression of mammary carcinoma (a breast cancer), without any observable systemic toxicity.

Asthma: inhaling the essential oil has been proven to open airways and clear nasal passages and sinuses.

Cancer: A mixture of lemon combined with eucalyptus, melaleuca, lemongrass, clove leaf, and thyme, in a 40 percent ethanol base, demonstrated anti-tumorigenic effects when administered to patients with metastatic tumorigenic ulcers. Cancer patients have also found relief from pain, anxiety, nausea, and vomiting by using lemon and other essential oils.

Cleaning: used to cleanse your home of harmful pathogens, like bacteria, fungi and viruses. Using lemon as a natural cleaning product also keeps your home free of conventional products that are made with dangerous chemicals.

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Cold & Cough: has antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, so it helps to boost your immune system and fight respiratory conditions.

Detoxification: has a purifying, cleansing and protective effect on the body. It helps to defend the body against harmful pathogens and promotes detoxification through the blood and liver. It also stimulates lymphatic drainage, which helps the body to cleanse itself of wastes and toxins.

Digestion: can help to soothe digestive problems, including issues like gastritis and constipation. It reduces gastritis symptoms by reducing the erosion of gastric mucosa (the lining of your stomach) and working as a gastro-protective agent against stomach lesions.

Nausea: can be used as a tool for reducing nausea and vomiting safely during pregnancy.

Oral Health: has antibacterial and antifungal properties, it works as a natural remedy for many oral conditions, including oral thrush and bad breath. It can also be used to whiten your teeth naturally and prevent tooth decay.

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Skin Care: benefits your skin by reducing acne, nourishing damaged skin and hydrating the skin. It is also effective against skin issues like blisters, insect bites, greasy and oily conditions, cuts, wounds, cellulite, rosacea, and viral infections of the skin like cold sores and warts.

Weight Loss: this essential oil contains d-limonene, which is known to help support your metabolism and cleanse your lymphatic glands, which can help with weight loss.

USES FOR LEMON ESSENTIAL OIL

Athlete’s foot, chilblains, colds, corns, dull skin, flu, oily skin, spots, varicose veins, warts. [Julia Lawless, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils (Rockport, MA: Element Books, 1995), 56-66.]

Detergent: Mix washing soda, purified water, vinegar, citric acid, and kosher salt with orange and/or lemon. Must be stored in the fridge. (See specific recipe below) Works for scrubbing dishes, in the dishwasher, and on hard surfaces. Cleaning your dishwasher is important at least once a month, run it empty with a cup of vinegar and baking soda.

Disinfectant & Degreaser: Add 40 drops of lemon and 20 drops of tea tree to a 16 ounce spray bottle fill with pure water (and a little bit of apple cider vinegar) for a traditional cleaning favorite. This natural cleaning product can be used to kill toxins and bacteria in your home, especially in places like your kitchen and bathroom.

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Facewash: combine 2-3 drops lemon essential oil with baking soda and honey and scrub face and rinse with warm water.

Goo-Be-Gone: 3-5 drops of lemon will dissolve it, then you can wipe it off. Use it on your hands to remove grease and oil.

Sore Throat Relief: adding the essential oil to water and baking soda and gargling can relieve sore throat, reduce mouth inflammation and soothe tonsillitis.

Tooth Whitener: mix baking soda, coconut oil and lemon, rub on teeth after brushing and flossing, allow to sit at least 2min before rinsing.

Wood & Silver Polish: 10 drops of lemon essential oil on a cloth and polish silver and jewelry safely, or clean and nourish wood surfaces.

PRECAUTIONS

Lemon essential oil can cause photosensitivity when used topically, so it’s important to avoid direct sunlight up to 12 hours after using lemon oil on your skin.

It can cause skin irritations in some people, so do a patch test on your arm or leg before using it topically just to be sure that you won’t have an adverse reaction. When using lemon oil on my skin, I like to dilute it with a carrier oil, like coconut oil or jojoba oil, especially on sensitive areas like my face.

RECIPES

Homemade Dishwasher Detergent with Orange and Lemon

Total Time: About 10 minutes  Serves: About 30 ounces

INGREDIENTS:

2 ounces washing soda

3¼ cups purified water

4 ounces white vinegar

1 ounce citric acid powder

1 cup kosher salt

20 drops wild orange essential oil

20 drops lemon essential oil

DIRECTIONS:

Combine all ingredients until well blended.

Use about 1½–2 tablespoons of detergent per load.

Homemade Melaleuca Citrus Household Cleaner

Total Time: 2 minutes  Serves: 30-90

INGREDIENTS:

8 ounces water

4 ounces distilled white vinegar

15 drops melaleuca oil

15 drops lemon

Glass cleaning spray bottle

DIRECTIONS:

Fill spray bottle with ingredients.

Close bottle and shake to mix.

Swirl/shake bottle before each spray.

Homemade Dish Soap with Lemon and Lavender

Total Time: 10 minutes Serves: About 16 ounces

INGREDIENTS:

1 cup Castile soap

¼ cup soap flakes or grated Castile soap

4 tablespoons super washing soda

4 ounces purified water

30 drops lemon essential oil

30 drops lavender essential oil (optional, rosemary)

DIRECTIONS:

Place the soap flakes and washing soda into a bowl and blend with a whisk.

Bring the water to a boil, then pour on top of the ingredients. Stir.

Add the remaining ingredients.

Blend all ingredients well.

Allow to cool, stirring occasionally, then pour into a BPS-free squirt bottle or a glass bottle with a pump.

Homemade Face Wash

Total Time: 5 minutes Serves: 30

INGREDIENTS:

1 cup coconut oil

1 tbsp baking soda

5 drops lavender essential oil

5 drops frankincense essential oil

5 drops lemon essential oil

Glass Jar

(if acne prone, replace frankincense and lemon oils with 10 drops of tea tree essential oil)

DIRECTIONS:

Melt the coconut oil in a pan over low heat

Once melted, remove from heat and add in the remaining ingredients.

Store in wash dispenser or air tight jar and keep it in a cool place

References:

  1. https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/essential-oils/health-benefits-of-lemon-oil.html
  2. https://articles.mercola.com/herbal-oils/lemon-oil.aspx
  3. https://www.planttherapy.com/lemon-essential-oil-fresh-zesty-pure-citrus-scent-plant-therapy
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lemon
  5. https://www.aromaweb.com/essential-oils/lemon-oil.asp
  6. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/6-lemon-health-benefits
  7. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0153643
  8. https://lipidworld.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12944-017-0487-5
  9. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10942912.2017.1303709
  10. https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.4973164
  11. https://irjponline.com/admin/php/uploads/2498_pdf.pdf
  12. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/blog/real-benefits-lemon-water-according-science
  13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6073409/
  14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4005434/
  15. https://thetruthaboutcancer.com/lemon-essential-oil-cancer-fighter/
  16. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5543433/
  17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24829772
  18. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19410566/
  19. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10568210
  20. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5435909/
  21. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15778557
  22. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2581754/
  23. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27571876
  24. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25272759
  25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4606594/
  26. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19109001
  27. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11314887
  28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3671226/
  29. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5543433/
  30. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3824622/
  31. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5894780/