Rose oil (rose otto, attar of rose, attar of roses or rose essence), this fragrant essential oil is known for its wonderful, classic floral scent that is comforting and timeless. Rose Otto can be helpful during times of duress and extreme sadness. It is also gentle to the skin and helps heal dry, reddened patches.
The petals of the rose bush are harvested at sunrise when the fragrance of the flower is at its most powerful. Steam distillation is applied to the petals, releasing a clear liquid with an exquisite, rosy aroma. It takes over 200 flowers to make a single drop of essential oil, making this a truly luxurious oil to use in home aromatherapy blends.
Rose Otto is hydro-distilled from the petals of the rose flower, creating a clear, thin liquid that can solidify at a temperature of 68 degrees F. If solid, put in a bag and insert into warm water. The oil will quickly return to a liquid state. This occurs with Rose Otto because of the distillation process and is completely normal. A little of this oil goes a long way, so only a drop is necessary to utilize its benefits.
Two major species of rose are cultivated for the production of rose oil:
Rosa damascena, the damask rose, which is widely grown in Bulgaria, Syria, Turkey, Russia, Pakistan, India, Uzbekistan, Iran and China
Rosa centifolia, the cabbage rose, which is more commonly grown in Morocco, France and Egypt.
Rose absolute (Rosa damascena): This has a deep, rich color and a scent to match. Not especially sweet, nor indeed anything like the rose aroma that is associated with many rose-scented toiletry products. Rounded and persistent, a little goes a long way. The lowest price of all the rose oils due to the higher production yield. Great if you need a strong rose aroma for a blend however the use of a solvent to extract the oil brings its own dilemmas when it comes to using on the skin.
Persian Rose essential oil (Rosa damascena): Solid at room temperature, this oil has a high level of plant waxes which slow its movement down a little in comparison to the other distilled rose oils. The Persian Rose has a slightly softer, sweeter scent than the classic Bulgarian Rose. At around two-thirds the cost of Bulgarian Rose this oil makes a good introduction to the distilled rose oils.
Bulgarian Rose essential oil (Rosa damascena): The classic rose, deep, rich and inviting. There are two varieties, the organic oil and the traditionally farmed oil. They share the same base scent however the organic version is a little deeper and more complex (and costs more due to the increased costs associated with organic farming).
White Rose essential oil (Rosa alba): Not a Rosa damascena but a Rosa alba. A dusky and mysterious fragrance.
Turkish Rose essential oil (Rosa damascena): Similar to the Bulgarian Rose in terms of scent but perhaps a little more grounding and earthy. Previously this oil cost less than its Bulgarian counterpart but more recently it has been the other way round.
Types of Rose Extracts
Rose Otto Essential Oil is lighter in color and thinner in viscosity than Rose CO2 Extract or Rose Absolute. It is made directly by steam distilling fresh rose petals. Two tons of rose petals to make two ounces of essential oil.
Rose CO2 Extract is a bit thicker to work with, even at room temperature because the CO2 extraction process can extract more of the heavier aromatic molecules, natural plant waxes and resins than can steam distillation. Aromatically, Rose CO2 Extract has a beautiful aroma that is more complete and more closely represents the natural fragrance of fresh roses (Rosa damascena).
Rose Absolute is often favored by fragrance formulators and perfumists for its fragrance, aromatic strength and lower cost than Rose Otto Essential Oil or Rose CO2 Extract.
Chemical Composition of Rose Otto
Citronellol – effective mosquito repellant (also found in citronella).
Citral – strong antimicrobial that is necessary for vitamin A synthesis (also found in lemon myrtle and lemongrass).
Carvone – effective digestive aid (also found in caraway and dill).
Citronellyl Acetate – responsible for the pleasant flavor and aroma of roses, which is why it is in many skin and beauty products.
Eugenol – also the powerhouse behind clove, the richest antioxidant in the world.
Farnesol – natural pesticide (also found in orange blossom, jasmine and ylang-ylang).
Methyl Eugenol – local antiseptic and anesthetic (also found in cinnamon and lemon balm).
Nerol – sweet-smelling aromatic antibiotic compound (also found in lemongrass and hops).
Phenyl Acetaldehyde – another sweet-smelling and aromatic compound (also found in chocolate).
Phenyl Geraniol – natural form of geraniol, which is commonly in perfumes and fruit flavorings.
Benefits of Using Rose Otto, CO2 Extract or Absolute
The most therapeutic effects of R. damascena in ancient medicine are including treatment of abdominal and chest pain, strengthening the heart, treatment of menstrual bleeding and digestive problems, and reduction of inflammation, especially of the neck. North American Indian tribes used a decoction of the root of R. damascena plant as a cough remedy to ease children’s cough. Rose oil heals depression, grief, nervous stress and tension. It helps in the reduction of thirst, healing old cough, special complaints of women, wound healing, and skin health. Vapor therapy of rose oil is helpful for some allergies (unless you are allergic to roses), headaches, and migraine.
Acne: able to completely destroy Propionibacterium acnes (the bacteria responsible for acne) after only five minutes of a 0.25 percent dilution!
Depression: women experienced significant decrease in depression scores, they also reported marked improvement in general anxiety disorder.
Improves Dysmenorrhea (Painful Period): a nonpharmacologic treatment method, as an adjuvant to conventional treatment methods may be beneficial for pain relief in individuals with primary dysmenorrhea.
Eczema: the soothing effects of rose oil, when diluted in a lotion or carrier oil, helps to relieve dry, red patches of skin
Frigidity: as an anti-anxiety agent, rose essential oil can greatly help men with sexual dysfunction related to performance anxiety and stress. It may also help to balance sex hormones, which can contribute to increased sex drive.
Mature Skin: it has potent anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, it contains antioxidants that fight off free radicals which encourage skin damage and skin aging. Free radicals can cause damage to skin tissue, which results in wrinkles, lines and dehydration.
Stress: the uplifting and calming effects of rose oil can help you deal with life’s stressors more effectively.
Rose Essential Oil Safety Information
Essential Oil Safety forewarns that Rose Otto may contain methyeugenol and states: “We recommend a dermal maximum of 0.6% and a maximum oral dose of 21mg, based on 3.3% methyleugenol content, with dermal and oral limits of 0.02% and 0.01mg/kg for methyleugenol).
For external use only. Do not use undiluted on the skin. Avoid contact with sensitive areas, such as eyes. Keep out of reach of children. Do not use essential oils on children under 5 years old. Consult your healthcare professional before using essential oils during pregnancy. Best kept in a cool dry place. Naturally occurring allergens: Citral, Citronellol, Eugenol, Farnesol, Geraniol and Linalool.
Lavender is perhaps the most well-known of the essential oils and for good reason. Lavender essential oil is renowned for its many beneficial properties, including promoting calm, relaxation, and being a nervous tension reliever. It can also be added to a carrier oil to help reduce the appearance of scars and wrinkles and help soothe alterations in skin integrity, such as during sun exposure or a minor cooking burn.
Early and modern aromatherapy texts advocate for lavender’s use as an antibacterial essential oil. The leaves and stems of the plant were used to prepare decoctions against digestive system diseases and rheumatism, and lavender was valued for its cosmetic purposes. The Romans used lavender oil for bathing, cooking and purifying the air. And in the Bible, lavender oil was among the aromatics used for anointing and healing.
You will find Lavender essential oil in many of Mother Jai’s products.
Bath & Body Oils – 8oz Bottle
Add natural moisture and aroma to any bath. Simply pour and enjoy!
The proven health benefits of lavender essential oil include its ability to reduce stress and anxiety, eliminate nervous tension, relieve pain, disinfect the scalp and skin, prevent acne, enhance blood circulation, and treat respiratory problems. Lavender oil is used extensively in aromatherapy and works as a natural sleep aid. Its potent antibacterial nature makes it a wonderful household cleanser and deodorant.
Lavender essential oil is extracted from the flowers of the lavender plant (Lavandula angustifolia), primarily through steam distillation. Lavender flowers are known for their calming fragrance and have been used for making potpourri for centuries. The Latin name of lavender is Lavare, which means “to wash”. This is because lavender flowers and lavender essential oil have been used since ancient times by the Romans, Persians, Greeks, and Egyptians as a bath additive and perfume.
Lavender essential oil is a pure oil and differs from certain commercial lavender oils which may be diluted and are often sold as perfumes. Lavender perfume and body sprays are popular due to their fresh and floral scent. On the other hand, pure lavender essential oil is frequently used in various forms including as an aromatherapy oil, in gels, infusions, lotions, soaps, baby products, and candles. It is also used to make tea, lemonades, syrups, aromatic beverages, and in baked dishes.
Lavender (scientific name Lavandula angustifolia) is commonly contaminated with related species, including Lavandula hybrida, which is a cross between Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula latifolia, from which lavandin oil is obtained.
Major Constituents of Bulgarian Lavender Essential Oil: Linalyl acetate, Linalool, (Z)-B-Ocimene, Lavandulyl acetate, Terpinene-4-ol, B-Caryophyllene, (E)-B-Farnesene, (E)-B-Ocimene, 3-Octanyl acetate, etc. See Essential Oil Safety for constituent breakdown for oils distilled from Lavender angustifolia grown in other regions.
[E. Schmidt, The Characteristics of Lavender Oils from Eastern Europe. (Perfumer & Flavorist 28, 2003), 48-60. Source cited in Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young, Essential Oil Safety (Second Edition. United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2014), 326.]
Aids in Digestion: Lavender oil is useful for digestion because it increases the mobility of food within the intestine. The oil also stimulates the production of gastric juices and bile, thus aiding in the treatment of indigestion, stomach pain, colic, flatulence, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Air Freshener: The same way you use lavender oil as a perfume, you can use it around your home as a natural, toxic-free air freshener. Either spray lavender oil around your home or try diffusing it. To create a relaxing atmosphere in your bedroom before you fall asleep, try spraying the lavender oil and water mixture directly onto your bed sheets or pillow.
Anti-bacterial: Regular use of lavender essential oil provides resistance to a variety of diseases. Lavender has antibacterial and antiviral qualities that make it perfect for defending the body against rare diseases like TB, typhoid, and diphtheria, according to early research in the 20th century.
Antidepressant: Some research shows that lavender aromatherapy reduces depression after childbirth in some women.
Antioxidant Protection: Free radicals, like toxins, chemicals and pollutants, are arguably the most dangerous and most common risk factor for every disease that affects Americans today. Free radicals are responsible for shutting down your immune system and can cause unbelievable damage to your body. Thankfully, lavender essential oil is a natural antioxidant that works to prevent and reverse disease
Bug Repellent: The smell of lavender essential oil is potent for many types of bugs like mosquitoes, midges, and moths. Apply some lavender oil on the exposed skin when outside to prevent these irritating bites. Furthermore, if you do happen to be bitten by one of those bugs, lavender essential oil has anti-inflammatory qualities that will reduce the irritation and the pain associated with bug bites.
Chemical Free Lip Balm: Lavender oil is excellent for preventing sunburns on the lips and also healing chapped, dried lips. Try adding a couple of drops of oil to shea butter, jojoba oil, coconut oil or another “carrier oil” and then rubbing it into your lips for protection whenever you will be in the sun.
Colic Relief in Babies: through its pain relieving and anti-anxiety benefits, babies with colic experience calming relief when applied to the feet or diffused in the room. Results from one small study show that massaging a combination of lavender and almond oils onto the belly of infants for 5-15 minutes at the onset of colic reduces crying time by about 7 hours per week.
Complementary Cancer Therapy: A 2012 study published in the African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines shows that aromatherapy, particularly using lavender oil, helps patients with cancer cope with stress, nausea, chronic pain and depression. Because lavender oil works to stimulate the immune system, boost mood, improve sleep and fight stress, it can be used as a therapeutic agent.
There is a significant research on the effects of lavender, in combination with other essential oils, as a way to prevent the occurrence of breast cancer in mice. This could be an indication of an increased chance of lavender battling carcinogenic effects and the presence of cancer.
Massaging lavender oil into the back of your neck, chest, wrists and temples can induce relaxing and calming effects. If you are experiencing muscle or joint pain, or pain at the site of injections, apply 2–3 drops of lavender to the affected area.
Dementia Support: because lavender improves circulation and has strong antioxidant benefits the chances of developing dementia are reduced. It can also help to improve events and their longevity when patients have dementia. Some research shows that using lavender oil in a diffuser at night reduces agitation in people with dementia.
Diabetes Natural Treatment: In a nutshell, lavender essential oil treatment protected the body from the following diabetes symptoms:
Increased blood glucose (the hallmark of diabetes)
Metabolic disorders (especially fat metabolism)
Liver and kidney antioxidant depletion
Liver and kidney dysfunction
Liver and kidney lipoperoxidation (when free radicals “steal” necessary fat molecules from cell membranes)
Ear Infections: Early research shows that administering ear drops containing lavender and other herbal extracts improves ear pain in people with ear infections. However, this herbal combination does not appear to be more effective than using a skin-numbing agent along with the antibiotic amoxicillin.
Fall Prevention: There is some evidence that attaching a pad with lavender oil onto the neckline of clothing reduces the risk of falling by 43% in nursing home residents.
Flavor Booster: Lavender is a great flavor enhancer in things like grain-free muffins, teas and even salad dressings. Lavender oil is completely edible, but you will want to use a very small amount since the taste is very powerful. You’ll also want to purchase only a high-quality, 100 percent pure grade oil from a reputable company.
1/4 oz glass roll-on you can take with you anywhere.
Heals Cuts & Burns: Widely known for its antimicrobial properties, for centuries lavender oil has been used to prevent various infections and combat bacterial and fungal disorders. Research shows that lavender oil speeds the healing of burns, cuts, scrapes and wounds — and a big part of this is because of its antimicrobial compounds.
A study published in Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine evaluated how lavender’s antimicrobial ability is enhanced when it’s blended with other essential oils, like clove, cinnamon and tea tree oil. Researchers found that a 1:1 ratio of these oils was found to be the most effective in fighting against Candida albicans and Staph aureus — two common causes of many fungal and bacterial infections that lead to respiratory pneumonia and skin funguses.
A 2016 study conducted on rats found that lavender oil promoted wound healing in the early phase by accelerating the formation of granulation tissue (tissue from the healing surface of the skin) and promoting collagen synthesis. The area of wounds treated with lavender oil was significantly decreased compared to the control group.
Healthy Skin & Hair: Most likely due to its antimicrobial and antioxidant characteristics, lavender essential oil mixed with a carrier oil (like coconut, sunflower, or grapeseed oil) has profound benefits on your skin. Using lavender oil topically can help to improve a number of skin conditions, from canker sores to allergic reactions, acne and age spots. Its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties help to ease skin conditions and reverse signs of aging.
Studies also show that lavender oil, along with other essential oils like thyme, rosemary and cedarwood, can significantly improve alopecia areata and hair loss when massaged into the scalp daily.
Improves Blood Circulation: Lavender essential oil is also good for improving the circulation of blood in the body. Researchers from the Department of Cardiovascular Science and Medicine, Chiba University in Japan suggests that aromatherapy using lavender oil has beneficial effects on coronary circulation. It also lowers blood pressure and is often used as a treatment for hypertension. This means that not only do the organs increase their levels of oxygenation, promoting muscle strength and health, but brain activity can have a noticeable boost, skin remains bright and flushed with blood, and the body is protected from the risks of heart attack and atherosclerosis often associated with poor blood circulation.
Early research shows that using an essential oil mixture of lavender, lemon, and ylang ylang as aromatherapy might reduce systolic blood pressure (the top number) but not diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) in people with high blood pressure.
Induces Sleep: Because of lavender oil’s sedative and calming properties, it works to improve sleep and treat insomnia. A 2015 study involving 158 mothers in their postpartum period were divided into the control or intervention group. The intervention group inhaled lavender oil before bed four times a week for eight weeks. The women using lavender oil displayed a significant improvement in sleep quality when compared to the control group.
Early research shows that using lavender oil in a vaporizer overnight, or on a gauze pad left beside the bed, might help some people with mild insomnia sleep better.
A mixture of lavender oil, Roman chamomile essential oil and magnesium oil is the best combination for improving sleep. Just rub this mixture into the back of your neck and wrists to induce a calm, peaceful feeling.
Lice Deterrent: it has been shown to be very effective on lice, lice eggs, and nits.
Mouth Sores: Research shows that applying 2 drops of lavender oil to the affected area three times daily can reduce canker sore swelling and pain and shorten the time it takes for canker sores to heal.
Natural Perfume: Do you want to smell good without using toxic perfumes? Lavender oil is a great scent for both women and men. You can either try adding pure oil directly to your skin, or you can dilute oil in water or with a carrier oil for a more subtle scent.
If you’d like to rub the oil right onto your skin, try adding 2–3 drops into your palms and then rubbing your hands together. Then rub the oil directly onto your skin or hair. You can also try using 2 drops of lavender oil added to a spray bottle with about ½ cup of water. Shake up the spray bottle and then spray whatever you’d like.
Neuroprotective Effect: A study published in Brain Research (February 2014) showed that lavender oil has the potential to reduce brain edema and improve functional ability in people affected by cerebral ischemia. While lavender has traditionally been used in many cosmetic and therapeutic applications due to medicinal properties, this study confirms that lavender oil has potent neuroprotective properties. Furthermore, the oil helps increase antioxidant capacity in the body and inhibits oxidative stress.
Promotes Wound Healing: Lavender essential oil is an excellent essential oil to have on hand as it helps treat minor cuts, bruises, and burns. According to a 2016 study published in the BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine journal, the essential oil boosts the synthesis of collagen and heals skin tissues. Just rub a few drops of lavender essential oil on the bruised area or on burns to increase blood circulation and healing. It can also be used to soothe skin irritations, razor bumps, and sunburn.
Relieves Headaches: It’s one of the best essential oils for headaches because it induces relaxation and relieves tension. It works as a sedative, anti-anxiety, anticonvulsant and calming agent. According to a study published in European Neurology, people struggling with migraine headaches saw a significant reduction in pain when they inhaled lavender oil for 15 minutes.
Relieves Pain: Lavender essential oil is known as an excellent remedy for various types of pains including those caused by sore and tense muscles, muscular aches, rheumatism, sprains, backache, and lumbago.
Several studies have found that lavender oil helps as a natural painkiller. Simply rubbing lavender into the area of concern can reduce inflammation and pain intensity, helping to alleviate the symptoms of many health conditions.
Another study, published in the Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, found that a combination of lavender, marjoram, peppermint and black pepper essential oils improved neck pain when applied to the affected area daily.
And yet another recent study proved that lavender oil, when massaged into the skin, can help to relieve dysmenorrhea, which is associated with menstrual pain and cramping in the lower abdomen. The results of this study suggest that lavender oil can be used as a natural remedy for PMS and menstrual cramps.
Relieves Stress & Anxiety: In 2013, an evidence-based study published by the International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice found that supplementing with 80 milligram capsules of lavender essential oil alleviates anxiety, sleep disturbance and depression. Additionally, in the study there were no adverse side effects, drug interactions or withdrawal symptoms from using lavender oil.
The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology published a human study in 2014 that revealed that Silexan (otherwise known as lavender oil preparation) was more effective against generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) than placebos and the prescription medicine paroxetine. After treatment, the study found zero instances of withdrawal symptoms or adverse side effects.
Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS): One study shows that massaging the legs with lavender oil for 10 minutes twice weekly can reduce the severity of restless legs syndrome in people with kidney failure who are undergoing dialysis.
Stimulates Urine Flow: Lavender essential oil is good for urinary disorders because of its stimulating effect on urine production. Furthermore, it helps in restoring hormonal balance and reducing cystitis or inflammation of the urinary bladder. It also reduces associated cramps with these and other disorders.
Stomach Discomfort: Many people find the scent of lavender to be soothing to the stomach. If you are feeling nauseous or know that you are going to be traveling in a car of plane and are prone to motion sickness, spray some lavender oil on your skin and clothes, or rub it into your temples, next and palms.
Supports Brain Function: Research also shows that lavender oil serves as a natural treatment for Alzheimer’s disease! Studies conducted on rats show that inhaling lavender essential oil vapor can help to prevent brain oxidative stress and improve cognitive impairment.
Also, in 2012, the Swiss journal Molecules printed the results of a study that shockingly proved that lavender oil is a viable treatment option for neurological dysfunctions such as stroke. Researchers believe that lavender’s neuroprotective effects are due to its antioxidant properties.
Treats Acne: Pure lavender essential oil inhibits the bacteria that cause the initial acne infection, helps to regulate the over-excretion of sebum by hormonal manipulation and can reduce the signs of scarring after the acne has begun to heal. Adding a small amount of lavender essential oil to other skin creams or ointments can greatly increase the potential for relief and healing.
Treats Eczema: Premium organic lavender oil is used to treat various skin disorders such as acne, wrinkles, psoriasis, and other inflammatory conditions. It is commonly used to speed up the healing process of wounds, cuts, burns, and sunburns because it improves the formation of scar tissues. It is also added to chamomile to treat eczema.
Treats Respiratory Disorders: Lavender oil is widely used for various respiratory problems including throat infection, flu, cough, cold, asthma, sinus congestion, bronchitis, whooping cough, laryngitis, and tonsillitis. It can be put in in an aromatherapy essential oil diffuser or alternatively, it can be topically applied to the skin of neck, chest, and back. It is also added to many vaporizers and inhalers that are commonly used for cold and cough. The stimulating nature of lavender essential oil can also loosen up the phlegm and relieve congestion associated with respiratory conditions, thus speeding up the recovery process and helping the body naturally eliminate phlegm and other unwanted material. The vapor of lavender essential oil also has antibacterial qualities which can battle respiratory tract infections.
LAVENDER ESSENTIAL OIL SIDE EFFECTS & PRECAUTIONS
For most people, lavender oil benefits are all that you’ll experience and using lavender oil is completely safe; however, there has not been an extensive amount of scientific research done on lavender oil interactions with other medications, or for its use in pregnant women, so there are certain situations where you will want to use caution.
Medication Interactions: If you are already taking any prescription medication for sleep-related disorders or for depression, be cautious of the fact that lavender can increase the effectiveness of these medications. Even if you use an over-the-counter sleep aid or any type of sedatives (even cough or flu medicine), keep in mind that lavender makes many people sleepy and even somewhat drowsy, so it’s best to not combine lavender oil with other medications or sleep-related supplements. If you are planning on undergoing anesthesia in the near future, you will also want to avoid using lavender oil.
Pregnant Women: Lavender oil is generally considered safe for women who are pregnant and nursing. Because it can have a relaxing effect on muscles and can also affect hormone levels, use lavender with caution in your third trimester. It’s best to speak with your doctor about use of any essential oils when pregnant, since it has not been guaranteed that these are safe at this time.
Children: Lavender oil is considered generally safe for children to use, although there is some concern that lavender’s effect on hormone levels could be harmful for boys who have not yet gone through puberty. Although there isn’t strong evidence for lavender being a hormone disrupter (only 1–2 very small studies were ever completed), parents are told to use caution if using lavender oil frequently on young children.
Ingesting Lavender Oil: Studies have primarily looked at the effects of using lavender oil topically on the skin or through inhalation. There have been no negative symptoms found when three drops of oil are mixed with a carrier oil and applied directly to the skin. A 2013 evidence-based article, however, highlighted that lavender can be ingested at a large dose of 80 to 160 milligrams without adverse effects, except for minor gastrointestinal symptoms. To avoid gastrointestinal irritation, keep internal use to a minimum and be careful if you have a sensitive digestive system. There are no known food interactions of lavender oil at this time.
The plant contains several oleanolic acid glycosides. Flavonol
and triterpene glycosides have been isolated from C. officinalis via high
pressure chromatography. Calendulin (also known as bassorin) has been
identified in the plant as have sterols and fatty acids such as calendic acid.
Additionally, the plant contains triterpenoid in free and ester forms,
tocopherols, mucilage, and a volatile oil. Enzymatic activity of calendula extracts
has been described. The carotenoid pigments have been used as coloring agents
in cosmetics and the volatile oil has been used in perfumes.
The major chemical constituents of Calendula oil are a-cadinol, limonene, a-cadinene, p-cymene, 1, 8-cineol along with other flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins, flavonol glycosides, carotenoids, sesquiterpene glucoside, amino acids, triterpene oligoglycosides, saponins, and oleanane-type triterpene glycosides.
Calendula has been used medicinally for centuries.
Traditionally, it has been used to treat conjunctivitis, blepharitis, eczema,
gastritis, minor burns including sunburns, warts, and minor injuries such as
sprains and wounds. It has also been used to treat cramps, coughs, and snake
bites. Calendula has a high content of flavonoids, chemicals that act as
anti-oxidants in the body. Anti-oxidants are thought to protect body cells from
damage caused by a chemical process called oxidation. Oxidation produces oxygen
free radicals, natural chemicals that may suppress immune function.
Calendula flower is used to prevent muscle spasms, start
menstrual periods, and reduce fever. It is also used for treating sore throat
and mouth, menstrual cramps, cancer, and stomach and duodenal ulcers.
Calendula is applied to the skin to reduce pain and
swelling (inflammation) and to treat poorly healing wounds and leg ulcers. It
is also applied to the skin (used topically) for nosebleeds, varicose veins,
hemorrhoids, inflammation of the rectum (proctitis), and inflammation of the
lining of the eyelid (conjunctivitis).
Don’t confuse calendula with ornamental marigolds of the
Tagets genus, which are commonly grown in vegetable gardens.
The plant has been grown in European gardens since the
12th century, and its folkloric uses are almost as old. Tinctures and extracts
of the florets were used topically to promote wound healing and to reduce
inflammation; systemically, they have been used to reduce fever, control
dysmenorrhea, and treat cancer. The plant is listed in the German Commission E
Monographs for wound healing and anti-inflammatory actions.
The dried petals have been used like saffron as a
seasoning and have been used to adulterate saffron. The pungent odor of the Calendula
has been used as an effective pesticide. Calendula flowers are often
interspersed among vegetable plants to repel insects.
Uses and Indications
Today, calendula is not usually taken by mouth. The
exception is when it is used in extremely small amounts in homeopathic
preparations. Calendula is usually applied topically, to the skin.
cuts, and bruises: Calendula tinctures, ointments, and washes
are often applied to the skin to help burns, bruises, and cuts heal faster, and
to fight the minor infections they cause. Calendula cream is also used to treat
hemorrhoids. Animal studies show that calendula helps wounds heal faster, maybe
by increasing blood flow to the wounded area and by helping the body make new
tissue. There are no scientific studies looking at whether calendula works in
humans, but using it on your skin is considered safe. Professional homeopaths
often recommend using ointments with calendula to heal first-degree burns and
evidence suggests that calendula may help prevent dermatitis, skin
inflammation, in people with breast cancer who are undergoing radiation
therapy, however, other studies show no effect. Calendula is also a safe and
effective remedy for diaper rash.
infection (otitis media): Ear drops containing calendula are
sometimes used to treat ear infections in children. A few scientific studies
have found no side effects. More research is needed to determine whether
calendula helps treat ear infections.
Health: There are also certain antibacterial properties of
calendula that have made it very popular in recent years. You will often find
it on the ingredients list of various herbal health and hygiene products,
including toothpastes, mouthwashes, soaps, and shampoos. In terms of oral
health, toothpastes and mouthwashes that contain calendula are very effective
in killing bacteria that cause everything from gingivitis to cavities.
Care: Aside from stimulating healing, calendula oil can
significantly boost the appearance of your skin. It can affect blood flow to
the skin cells, provide antioxidant protection that reduces the appearance of
wrinkles and ages spots, and even the visibility of scars. If you want smooth,
even-toned skin that glows with youthful vitality, consider adding some organic
products that contain calendula or consume calendula in another form, such as
Health: Research has shown that calendula contains certain
antioxidant compounds that directly impact your vision. Beta-carotene is
essential for the health and functioning of your eyes, and it is a wonderful
source of this compound. You can prevent macular degeneration and the development
of cataracts in this way.
Inflammation: Regardless of where you inflammation is
occurring, calendula can significantly reduce the discomfort. If you are
suffering from a cough or congestion, calendula tea can be a wonderful remedy.
If your joints are hurting from arthritis or gout, add some calendula oil to a
skin balm and enjoy a rapid reduction in pain. Finally, if your stomach is
upset, calendula can help normalize your gastrointestinal system and eliminate
any inflammation that may be causing discomfort.
Prevention: Calendula oil has certain anti-tumor
properties that make it very valuable in new cancer research exploring natural
solutions to this global epidemic. Cancer remains one of the great mysteries of
our species in terms of collective health, and compounds like those found in
calendula offer an interesting new angle on this critical issue.
Cramping: There are also some anti-spasmodic properties of
calendula that are also taken advantage of by many people. If you suffer from a
nervous system disorder, have painful cramping in relation to menstruation, or
some other type of spasmodic condition, adding calendula to your diet may be a
Fresh or dried calendula petals are available in
tinctures, liquid extracts, infusions, ointments, and creams.
Calendula products should always be protected from light
and moisture, and should not be used after 3 years of storage.
Precautions & Warnings:
and breast-feeding: Don’t take
calendula by mouth if you are pregnant. It is LIKELY UNSAFE. There is a concern
that it might cause a miscarriage. It’s best to avoid topical use as well until
more is known.
to ragweed and related plants: Calendula
may cause an allergic reaction in people who are sensitive to the
Asteraceae/Compositae family. Members of this family include ragweed,
chrysanthemums, marigolds, daisies, and many others. If you have allergies, be
sure to check with your healthcare provider before taking calendula.
Calendula might cause too much drowsiness if
combined with medications used during and after surgery. Stop taking calendula
at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Akhtar N, Zaman SU, Khan BA, Amir MN,
Ebrahimzadeh MA. Calendula extract: effects on mechanical parameters of human
skin. Acta Pol Pharm. 2011;68(5):693-701.
Alnuqaydan AM, Lenehan CE, Hughes RR,
Sanderson BJ. Extracts from Calendula officinalis offer in vitro protection
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Beeswax (cera alba) is a natural wax produced by honeybees
of the genus Apis. The wax is formed into scales by eight wax-producing glands
in the abdominal segments of worker bees, which discard it in or at the hive.
The hive workers collect and use it to form cells for honey storage and larval
and pupal protection within the beehive. Chemically, beeswax consists mainly of
esters of fatty acids and various long-chain alcohols.
Bees consume about eight times as much honey and fly 150,000
miles to create one pound of beeswax. The mixing of pollen oils into honeycomb
wax turns the white wax into a yellow or brown color.
Beeswax is the only naturally occurring wax. Vegetable waxes must be rendered from fruit
or leaves like bayberries or candelilla leaves.
Other waxes like soy wax or paraffin are produced by a toxic chemical
Beeswax has been used since prehistory as the first plastic,
as a lubricant and waterproofing agent, in lost wax casting of metals and
glass, as a polish for wood and leather, for making candles, as an ingredient
in cosmetics and as an artistic medium in encaustic painting. Beeswax is
edible, having similar negligible toxicity to plant waxes, and is approved for
food use in most countries and in the European Union under the E number E901.
Evidence has been found of prehistoric dentistry dating back
to the Neolithic times reporting a 6,500-year-old human mandible from Slovenia
whose left canine crown shows the traces of a filling with beeswax. While we
don’t know all the facts, it’s thought that if the filling was done when the
person was still alive, the intervention was likely aimed to relieve tooth
sensitivity derived from either exposed dentine and/or the pain resulting from
chewing on a cracked tooth.
Purified and bleached beeswax is used in the production of
food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. The three main types of beeswax products
are yellow, white, and beeswax absolute. Yellow beeswax is the crude product
obtained from the honeycomb, white beeswax is bleached or filtered yellow
beeswax, and beeswax absolute is yellow beeswax treated with alcohol. In food
preparation, it is used as a coating for cheese; by sealing out the air,
protection is given against spoilage (mold growth).
Beeswax may also be used as a food additive E901, in small
quantities acting as a glazing agent, which serves to prevent water loss, or
used to provide surface protection for some fruits. Soft gelatin capsules and
tablet coatings may also use E901. Beeswax is also a common ingredient of
natural chewing gum. The wax monoesters in beeswax are poorly hydrolyzed in the
guts of humans and other mammals, so they have insignificant nutritional value.
Some birds, such as honeyguides, can digest beeswax. Beeswax is the main diet
of wax moth larvae.
Clears Acne: Beeswax is one of the most well-known
home remedies for acne. It has strong antiseptic, healing and anti-inflammatory
properties, making it effective in the treatment of acne, in particular because
it contains vitamin A. It’s also an excellent skin softener and emollient that
helps maintain a smooth skin texture after acne elimination. The combination of
skin care applications, a healthy diet and daily exercise is the best way to
control and prevent acne.
Dermatitis, Psoriasis and Eczema: Beeswax is a great
choice for many skin conditions. A honey, beeswax and olive oil mixture is
useful in the treatment of diaper dermatitis, psoriasis and eczema.
Heals Dry, Cracked Lips: The natural moisturizers in
beeswax make it the perfect lip balm. If you suffer from cracked or chapped
lips, topical applications of beeswax and a few other ingredients can provide
some much-needed relief. It’s easy to make your own lip balm by combining it
with coconut oil, honey, vitamin E oil, and your favorite essential oils, such
as orange, peppermint, lavender or lemon.
Moisturizes Skin: Beeswax is an amazing way to
moisturize the skin and is commonly found in skin care products and cosmetics.
It can help protect and repair rough, dry or chapped skin because it has the
ability to lock in moisture. This wax has rich vitamin A content and emollient
properties, which soften and rehydrate the skin as well as aiding in the
healthy development of cellular reconstruction. Another benefit to its use is
that because it is noncomedogenic, it won’t clog pores.
Reduces Stretch Marks: collagen is a major
extracellular matrix component that’s very important in wound healing. Since
beeswax contains vitamin A, which is helpful in collagen production, it can
greatly benefit the reduction of stretch marks. By combining beeswax, royal
jelly, shea or cocoa butter, grapeseed oil, and coconut oil, you have a natural
remedy for preventing and treating stretch marks while helping improve collagen
Relieves Pain and Is Anti-Inflammatory: As medicine,
beeswax has been studied in the use of relieving pain and inflammation and has
mild anti-swelling effects. A 2014 study published in the Korean Journal of
Internal Medicine reports that it was used to helped relieve inflammation
caused by osteoarthritis.
According to Research Conducted There is Insufficient
Small tears in the anus (anal fissures). Early
research suggests that applying a mixture of beeswax, honey, and olive oil to
the affected area for 12 hours reduces pain, bleeding, and itching due to anal
Diaper rash. Early research suggests that applying a
mixture of beeswax, honey, and olive oil to the affected area four times daily
for 7 days reduces symptoms of diaper rash.
Hemorrhoids. Early research suggests that applying a
mixture of beeswax, honey, and olive oil to the affected area for 12 hours
reduces pain, bleeding, and itching due to hemorrhoids.
Ringworm (tinea corporis). Early research suggests
that applying a mixture of beeswax, honey, and olive oil to the affected area
three times daily for 4 weeks improves ringworm.
Jock itch (tinea cruris). Early research suggests
that applying a mixture of beeswax, honey, and olive oil to the affected area
three times daily for 4 weeks improves jock itch.
Fungal skin infection (tinea versicolor). Early
research suggests that applying a mixture of beeswax, honey, and olive oil to
the affected area three times daily for 4 weeks improves a fungal skin
infection called tinea versicolor.
Side Effects & Safety
Beeswax is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth
as food or as a medicine, or when applied directly to the skin.
Special Precautions & Warnings
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough
reliable information about the safety of taking beeswax if you are pregnant or
breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
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