Sweet Orange

Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis & aurantium var dulce)

Sweet orange is a fruit. The peel and juice are used to make medicine. The peel of sweet orange is used to increase appetite; reduce phlegm; and treat coughs, colds, intestinal gas (flatulence), acid indigestion (dyspepsia), and cancerous breast sores. It is also used as a tonic. Sweet orange juice is used for treating kidney stones (nephrolithiasis) and high cholesterol; and preventing high blood pressure and stroke, as well as prostate cancer.

The fruit and rind contain large amounts of vitamin C. Some researchers believe it might help asthma because of the antioxidant activity of vitamin C. It provides large amounts of potassium. There is evidence that potassium may help prevent high blood pressure and stroke. The fruit and juice are used to prevent kidney stones because they contain large amounts of a compound called citrate. Citrate tends to bind with calcium before it can form kidney stones.

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You will find Sweet Orange essential oil in Mother Jai’s Moisturizing Hand Sanitizer and Sanitizing Spray. Shop for yours below.

Known Benefits of Sweet Orange

Antimicrobial. Compounds found within the sweet orange peel have shown to be highly resistant to infection. Not only protecting the fruit from invasion but also when used internally or externally the compounds provide the same physical benefits to humans and animals, especially dogs and cats.

Antidepressant. Sweet Orange is commonly known for its wonderful uplifting and calming scent. When diffused, it can help with nervous tension, sadness, and can also improve the aroma of a stale room. It can also help support normal function of the immune system.

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High cholesterol. Drinking sweet orange juice seems to help improve cholesterol levels. In large amounts (750 mL, or about three 8-oz glasses, per day for four weeks), sweet orange juice seems to increase “good” high-density lipoprotein and reduce the ratio of “bad” low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to HDL cholesterol in people with high cholesterol.

High blood pressure. Drinking sweet orange juice seems to help lower the risk of high blood pressure. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows makers of sweet orange products that provide at least 350 mg of potassium per serving and are low in sodium, saturated fat, and cholesterol to make label claims that their product might reduce the risk of developing high blood pressure.

Stroke. Drinking sweet orange juice seems to help lower the risk of stroke. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows makers of sweet orange products that provide at least 350 mg of potassium per serving and are low in sodium, saturated fat, and cholesterol to make label claims that their product might reduce the risk of stroke.

Historical Uses of Sweet Orange

Asthma. There is some evidence that sweet orange and other fruits that are rich in vitamin C might improve lung function in people with asthma. But not all studies agree.

Common cold. Some research shows that drinking 180 mL (about 6 ounces) of sweet orange juice daily might help prevent symptoms of the common cold.

Depression. Early research suggests that using sweet orange on the skin during massage, or in the air as aromatherapy, reduces depression in older adults.

Insomnia. Early research shows that inhaling sweet orange as aromatherapy might help people who are going through hemodialysis to sleep better and feel less tired.

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Kidney stones. Some research reports that drinking 400 mL of sweet orange juice (about 13 ounces) increases the amount of citrate in the urine. This might help to prevent kidney stones that are made of calcium.

Obesity. Early research shows that drinking sweet orange juice does not reduce body weight in overweight adults. Other research shows that taking a specific product containing sweet orange, blood orange, and grapefruit extracts seems to decrease body weight and body fat in overweight people. But it is not clear if this is from the sweet orange or from the other ingredients.

Stress. Early research shows that smelling sweet orange essential oil during a stressful task might reduce anxiety and tension.

Using Sweet Orange as a Medicine

For high cholesterol: 750 mL sweet orange juice per day.

For high blood pressure and stroke prevention: Sweet orange juice products that provide at least 350 mg of potassium per serving and are low in sodium, saturated fat, and cholesterol are permitted by the FDA to make labeling claims that they might reduce the risk of developing high blood pressure and stroke.

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Side Effects & Safety WebMD.com

When taken by mouth: Sweet orange juice and fruit is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when used in food amounts. It is POSSIBLY SAFE when used as a medicine.

When inhaled: Sweet orange essential oil is POSSIBLY SAFE when used in aromatherapy.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Sweet orange is LIKELY SAFE when used in food amounts. There isn’t enough reliable information to know if sweet orange is safe to use as medicine when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Children: In children, sweet orange juice or fruit is LIKELY SAFE when used in normal food amounts. But taking large amounts of sweet orange peel is LIKELY UNSAFE. It can cause colic, convulsions, or death.

Medication Interactions When Using Sweet Orange as a Medicine

Some medications are moved by pumps in cells. Sweet orange might change how these pumps work and decrease how much of some medications get absorbed by the body. This could make these medications less effective. To avoid this interaction, separate taking these medications from consuming sweet orange by at least 4 hours. Some of these medications that are moved by pumps in cells include bosentan (Tracleer), celiprolol (Celicard, others), etoposide (VePesid), fexofenadine (Allegra), fluoroquinolone antibiotics, glyburide (Micronase, Diabeta), irinotecan (Camptosar), methotrexate, paclitaxel (Taxol), saquinavir (Fortovase, Invirase), rifampin, statins, talinolol, torsemide (Demadex), troglitazone, and valsartan (Diovan).

Pravastatin (Pravachol)Interaction Rating: Major Do not take this combination. Drinking sweet orange juice might increase how much pravastatin (Pravachol) the body absorbs. Taking pravastatin (Pravachol) with sweet orange juice might increase drug levels in the body and possibly increase the chance of drug side effects.

Antibiotics (Quinolone antibiotics)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination. Talk with your health provider. Calcium-fortified sweet orange juice can reduce the amount of some antibiotics the body absorbs. Reduced absorption of antibiotics can reduce their ability to fight infection. Sweet orange juice without calcium is unlikely to affect quinolone antibiotics. Some quinolone antibiotics include ciprofloxacin (Cipro), enoxacin (Penetrex), gatifloxacin (Tequin), levofloxacin (Levaquin), lomefloxacin (Maxaquin), moxifloxacin (Avelox), norfloxacin (Noroxin), ofloxacin (Floxin), and trovafloxacin (Trovan).

Fexofenadine (Allegra)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider. Sweet orange might decrease how much fexofenadine (Allegra) the body absorbs. Taking sweet orange along with fexofenadine (Allegra) might decrease the effectiveness of fexofenadine (Allegra). To avoid this interaction, separate taking this medication from consuming sweet orange by at least 4 hours.

References:

https://www.aromaweb.com/essential-oils/sweet-orange-oil.asp

https://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/o/oraswe12.html

https://idtools.org/id/citrus/citrusid/factsheet.php?name=Sweet+Oranges+%28Common%29

http://www.hflsolutions.com/lo/ingredients/AZ_2002_Preuss.pdf

https://www.medicinenet.com/sweet_orange/supplements-vitamins.htm

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf990176o

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/153537020422900802

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1319016417301421

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/biochemistry-genetics-and-molecular-biology/sweet-orange

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024320505009811

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0367326X99000933

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1022899119374

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s002990050313

https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-908/sweet-orange

Molecules for Health

Molecules for Health – Instead of Chemicals Preventing Health

These are the chemical compounds that make up essential oils. These molecules can be toxic or nourishing to the body. We discuss which can be toxic and the benefits of the nourishing molecules. Mother Jai professionally blends essential oils for their safe use everyday.

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What Do Essential Oils Consist Of?

All substances can be broken down into an array of molecules and atoms, and essential oils are no different. Each essential oil can be broken down into an array of different natural chemical constituents.

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Many of our modern medicines are a result of analyzing the natural chemical constituents of raw botanicals and distilled essential oils. Common aspirin is one example. White Willow Bark, used over 2,000 years ago by Hippocrates to ease headaches and other muscular pains, contains a natural anti-inflammatory identified in the nineteenth century as salicin. Salicin is a cousin to salicylic/acetylsalicylic acid, more commonly known as aspirin. White Willow Bark is still routinely used by herbalists to more naturally relieve pain and inflammation.

After the analysis and discovery of the benefits of the effective components in essential oils or raw botanicals, chemists routinely isolate these constituents for use in modern medicines. Chemists then derive ways to more inexpensively synthesize these constituents.

Essential Oil Constituents

In general, pure essential oils can be subdivided into two distinct groups of chemical constituents; the hydrocarbons which are made up almost exclusively of terpenes (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes), and the oxygenated compounds which are mainly esters, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, phenols, and oxides.

Terpenes Hydrocarbons:

Terpenes – inhibit the accumulation of toxins and help discharge existing toxins from the liver and kidneys.

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  • Sesquiterpenes are antiseptic and anti-inflammatory. They work as a liver and gland stimulant and contain caryophyllene and valencene. Research from the universities of Berlin and Vienna show increased oxygenation around the pineal and pituitary glands. Further research has shown that sesquiterpenes have the ability to surpass the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain tissue. other sesquiterpenes, like chamazulene and farnesol, are very high in anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial activity. Chamazulene may be found in chamomile, tansy, and yarrow.
  • Farnesene is anti-viral in action.
  • Limonene has strong anti-viral properties and has been found in 90% of the citrus oils.
  • Pinene has strong antiseptic properties and may be found in high proportions in the conifer oils such as pine, fir, spruce, and juniper.
  • Other terpenes include camphene, cadinene, cedrene, dipentene, phellandrene, terpinene, sabinene, and myrcene.

Oxygenated compounds:

Esters – are the compounds resulting from the reaction of an alcohol with an acid (known as esterification). Esters are very common and are found in a large number of essential oils. They are anti-fungal, calming and relaxing.

  • Linalyl acetate may be found in bergamot, Clary sage, and lavender
  • Geraniol acetate may be found in sweet marjoram.
  • Other esters include bornyl acetate, eugenol acetate, and lavendulyl acetate.

Aldehydes – are highly reactive and characterized by the group C-H-O (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen). In general, they are anti-infectious with a sedative effect on the central nervous system. They can be quite irritating when applied topically (citral being one example), but may have a profound calming effect when inhaled.

  • Citral is very common with a distinctive antiseptic action. It also has an anti-viral application as with melissa oil when applied topically on herpes simplex.
  • Citronellal is also very common and has the same lemony scent as citral. Along with citral and neral, citronellas may be found in the oils of melissa, lemongrass, lemon, mandarin, lemon-scented eucalyptus, and citronella.
  • Elements of aldehydes have also been found in lavender and myrrh. Other aldehydes include benzaldehyde, cinnamic aldehyde, cuminic aldehyde, and perillaldehyde.

Ketones – are sometimes mucolytic and neuro-toxic when isolated from other constituents. However, all recorded toxic effects come from laboratory testing on guinea pigs and rats. No documented cases exist where oils with a high concentration of ketones (such as mugwort, tansy, sage, and wormwood) have ever caused a toxic effect on a human being. Also, large amounts of these oils would have to be consumed for them to result in a toxic neurological effect. Ketones stimulate cell regeneration, promote the formation of tissue, and liquefy mucous. They are helpful with such conditions as dry asthma, colds, flu and dry cough and are largely found in oils used for the upper respiratory system, such as hyssop, Clary sage, and sage.

  • Thujone is one of the most toxic members of the ketone family. It can be an irritant and upsetting to the central nervous system and may be neuro-toxic when taken internally as in the banned drink Absinthe. Although it may be inhaled to relieve respiratory distress and my stimulate the immune system, it should only be administered by an educated and professional aromatherapist.
  • Jasmone (found in jasmine) and fenchone (found in fennel) are both non-toxic.
  • Other ketones include camphor, carvone, menthone, methyl nonyl ketone, and pinacamphone.

Alcohols – are commonly recognized for their antiseptic and anti-viral activities. They create an uplifting quality and are regarded as non-toxic.

  1. Terpene Alcohols stimulate the immune system, work as a diuretic and a general tonic, and are anti-bacterial as well. These oils have good antiseptic, anti-viral and anti-fungal properties with very few side effects such as skin irritation or toxicity and have an uplifting energizing effect.
  2. Linalol can help relieve discomfort. It may be found in rosewood and lavender.
  3. Citronellol may be found in rose, lemon, eucalyptus, geranium, and others.
  4. Geraniol may be found in geranium as well as palmarosa.
  5. Farnesol may be found in chamommile. It is also good for the mucous.
  6. Other terpene alcohols include borneol, menthol, nerol, terpineol, (which Dr. Gattefosse considered to be a decongestant), vetiverol, benzyl alcohol, and cedrol.
  7. Sesquiterpene Alcohols are anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-mycotic, and ulcer-protective (preventative). These alcohols are not commonly found in essential oils, but when found, like bisabolol in German chamomile, have great properties, which include liver and glandular stimulant, anti-allergen and anti-inflammatory.
  8. Bisabolol is one of the the strongest sesquiterpene alcohols. It may be found in chamomile oils where it also functions well as a fixative.
  9. Other oils that contain sesquiterpene alcohols are sandalwood (a-santalol) as well as ginger, patchouli, vetiver, carrot seed, everlasting and valerian.

Phenols – are responsible for the fragrance of an oil. They are antiseptic, anti-bacterial, and strongly stimulating but can also be quite caustic to the skin. They contain high levels of oxygenating molecules and have anioxidant properties.

  • Eugenol may be found in clove and cinnamon oil.
  • Thymol is found in thyme and may not be as caustic as other phenols.
  • Carvacrol may be found in oregano and savory. Researchers believe it may possibly contain some anti-cancerous properties.
  • Others in the phenol family include methyl eugenol, methyl chavicol anethole, safrole, myristicin, and apiol.

Oxides – According to The American Heritage™ Dictionary of the English Language, an oxide is “a binary compound of an element or a radical with oxygen”.

  • Cineol (or eucalyptol) is by far the most important member of the family and virtually exists in a class of its own. It is anesthetic, antiseptic, and works as an expectorant. Cineol is well known as the principal constituent of eucalyptus oil. It may also be found in rosemary, cinnamon, melissa, basil, and ravensara.
  • Other oxides include linalol oxide, ascaridol, bisabolol oxide, and bisabolone oxide.

Lactones and coumarins – contain an ester group integrated into a carbon ring system and coumarins are also types of lactones. There are similarities between the actions of lactones, coumarins and ketones since they also have some neurotoxic effects and can cause skin sensitizing and irritation. Yet the sesquiterpene lactone, called helenalin found in arnica oil, seems to be responsible for the anti-inflammatory action of arnica oil. The amount of lactones and coumarins normally found in essential oils is very low, and does not pose a huge problem. Lactones also have great mucus moving and expectorant properties and for this reason elecampane is often used in the treatment of bronchitis and chest complaints. Some coumarins, like furocoumarin – bergaptene – found in bergamot oil are severely skin UV sensitive and should be used with great care should you be exposed to sunlight.

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All pure essential oils have some anti-bacterial properties. They increase the production of white blood cells, which help fight infectious illnesses. It is through these properties that aromatic herbs have been esteemed so highly throughout the ages and so widely used during the onsets of malaria, typhoid, and of course, the epidemic plagues during the 16th century. Research has found that people who consistently use pure essential oils have a higher level of resistance to illnesses, colds, flues, and diseases than the average person. Further indications show that such individuals, after contracting a cold, flu, or other illness, will recover 60-70 percent faster than those who do not use essential oils.

Pain Relief – 2oz Bottle

References:

  1. http://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.4958484
  2. http://essentialoils.co.za/components.htm
  3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2003.11.093
  4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2011.03.001
  5. http://www.mdpi.com/2077-0472/5/1/48/htm
  6. https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1829
  7. https://www.abundanthealth4u.com/Essential_Oils_Constituents_s/41.htm
  8. https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/chemical-composition-essential-oil-characterization-and-antimicrobialactivity-of-carum-copticum-2376-1318-1000139.php?aid=74155
  9. http://www.microbiologyresearch.org/docserver/fulltext/jmm/61/2/252_jmm036988.pdf?expires=1512736482&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=1B7496172C5E6DC2D709AF048EE2BEB3
  10. http://www.jinan.edu.lb/pages/en/chemical-composition-of-essential-oil
  11. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(1998)12:1+%3CS117::AID-PTR269%3E3.0.CO;2-2/abstract
  12. http://www.ijddr.in/drug-development/43-antibacterial-activity-and-chemical-composition-of-essential-oils-of-ten-aromatic-plants-against-selected-bacteria.php?aid=5156
  13. http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/2/11/165
  14. https://www.mountainroseherbs.com/catalog/aromatherapy/essential-oils?gclid=CjwKCAiAjanRBRByEiwAKGyjZSQwgB2vRffGIeSPhyj7_G0z4FO8ja4GaQPRTNlkHWbETqXlHAaQaRoCDwQQAvD_BwE
  15. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-695X2016000100023
  16. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0102695X15001817
  17. https://www.aromaweb.com/articles/essentialoilqualitypurity04.asp
  18. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5133837/
  19. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/221926513_Study_of_the_Chemical_Composition_of_Essential_Oils_by_Gas_Chromatography
  20. https://www.nhrorganicoils.com/frame.php?page=info_21

Spike Lavender

Spike Lavender oil (Lavandula spica & latifolia)

There are three basic types of Lavender available.

The first is Spike Lavender (Lavandula spicata). This wild character smells a bit like its name would lead you to believe…rough and spiky. It is full of camphoraceous notes and is not likely to soothe or relax you.

The second are the True Lavenders (Lavandula angustifolia or Lavandula officinalis). This type of Lavender can be further divided into what the French call Fine or Population lavenders, and the Clonal Lavenders.

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  1. A Clonal Lavender is a True Lavender that has been bred for certain characteristics (most usually a sweet bouquet) and which is propagated by taking cuttings from the parent plant, as opposed to by seed.
  2. The Population Lavenders are the original Lavenders of Provence and because they are grown from seed, each plant will have a unique genetic make up and this can be seen in the variance in the appearance of the plants in the field. This variance also gives the essential oil a rich complex bouquet, and a correspondingly rich therapeutic potential. Population Lavenders require cool air to thrive, so they are only found at high elevations.

The third and final group are the Lavandins. Lavadins are types of Lavender produced by interbreeding the True Lavenders with the Spike Lavenders. There are many different strains of Lavadin, of which Abrialis, Super and Grosso are perhaps the most common. The reason that so much of the ‘lavender’ sold these days comes from strains of Lavandin plants is because these hybrid plants grow vigorously to a large size, they resist disease, and they have large flower spikes that yield a lot of oil – making the essential oil inexpensive.

Lavandula spica (spicata)

A beautiful dwarf form of English Lavender. Very Fragrant, intense blue flowers are held on short erect stems during spring summer. The flowers are held above a neat, compact, silver-grey mound of camphor scented foliage just 25cm across. Great cut flowers and dries beautifully.  Lovely small specimen for pots or makes a very tidy border edging plant. Enjoys full sun in well drained, neutral to slightly alkaline soil. Tolerates dry periods. Frost hardy once established.

Spike Lavender is differentiated by its minty, herbal scent. This aroma is helpful for supporting the respiratory system as well as local circulation. Spike Lavender is also more stimulating and active on the skin than Lavender Angustifolia.

Spike lavender is wonderfully cooling when hot flashes hit. Not nearly as harsh as peppermint and yet cools the entire system when applied in diluted form onto the skin. Assists in balancing hormones associated with body temperature and regulation.

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Blends well with:  Bay Laurel, Black Pepper, Black Spruce, Cedar Atlas, Clove, Eucalyptus Radiata, Eucalyptus Globulus, Balsam Fir, Douglas Fir, Silver Fir, Frankincense, Hyssop Decumbens, Inula, Lavender, Oregano, Palmarosa, Patchouli, Peppermint, Wild Scotch Pine, Rosemary Cineol, Sage, Tea Tree, Thyme, Wintergreen.

Safety Information: Do not apply directly on young children. Do not ingest.

Maximum Adult Dilution: 19%; 114 drops per ounce of carrier

Recommended Dilution: 1-5%; 6 – 30 drops per ounce of carrier

Lavandula latifolia

Known as broadleaved lavender, spike lavender or Portuguese lavender, is a flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae, native to the western Mediterranean region, from central Portugal to northern Italy (Liguria) through Spain and southern France. Hybridization can occur in the wild with English lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). The scent of Lavandula latifolia is stronger, with more camphor, and more pungent than Lavandula angustifolia scent. For this reason the two varieties are grown in separate fields.

Aromatically, Spike Lavender Oil tends to blend well with the same families of essential oils that traditional Lavender Oil does including other floral, mint and coniferous oils. Rosemary Essential Oil, depending on the chemotype, also tends to have a large percentage of camphor. If you particularly like the aroma of Rosemary Oil, you should find the aroma of Spike Lavender Essential Oil appealing.

Spike Lavender Essential Oil possesses usage applications similar to that of traditional Lavender Oil. However, it’s greater percentage of the constituent camphor gives it stronger analgesic and expectorant properties. It is a better choice to ease headaches or use as an expectorant in the diffuser. Diluted for topical use, it can be used to help ease aches, pains or the discomfort associated with arthritis. It is also reported to be effective in repelling insects.

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Due to its camphor content of up to 25%, Spike Lavender Essential Oil should be used with care. Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young do not specify any contraindications for Spike Lavender Essential Oil, but state that it may be mildly neurotoxic. [Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young, Essential Oil Safety (Second Edition. United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2014), 329.]

Properties : Nervous system regulation, calming, sedative, anti-depressive, powerful antispasmodic, muscle relaxer, hypotensive, general and pulmonary antiseptic, heart tonic and tonic, cardiac nerves contrastimulant, skin repair, skin regeneration (external use), anti-inflammatory, analgesic

Indications : Infectious, cicatricial or allergic skin ailments, acne, couperosis, psoriasis, pruritus, eczema, wounds, burns, insect bites, razor burn, eschars, ulcers, stretch marks, insomnias, sleeping disorders, spasms, irritability, anxiety, depressive state, stress, cramps, contractures and muscular spasms, hypertension, palpitation, tachycardia, nervous disorders, asthma, digestive spasms, nausea, migraine, rheumatisms

Energetic and Emotional Effect: Solar plexus action. Lavender calms irritations associated with power confrontations and interpersonal relationships. It also calms anxious people and anger in general.

For congestion: Massage around the ear and lymphatic nodes with a few drops, pure or diluted in vegetable oil.

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To calm anxiety and stress episodes: Apply five or six drops on the solar plexus (diaphragm) and massage while breathing slowly and profoundly.

To ease sleep: Mix one drop of essential oil in two table spoons of maple syrup. In your mixer, blend 500ml of plain yogurt

References:

  1. https://www.seedscape.net.au/shop/hardy-perennial/lavandula-spicata-muffets-children/
  2. https://www.essentialoils.gr/en/essential-oil-singles/208-lavender-spike-essential-oil-bio-lavandula-latifolia-cineolifera-florihana.html
  3. https://dengarden.com/gardening/Best-French-English-Lavenders-Lavender-lavendar-grow-in-Zone-5-ontario-flowers-herbs
  4. https://bodybliss.com/blog/a-lesson-in-lavender-june-20th-/
  5. http://veriditasbotanicals.com/products/essential-oils/lavender-spike/
  6. https://www.aromaweb.com/essential-oils/spike-lavender-oil.asp
  7. https://everything-lavender.com/spike-lavender.html
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26441063
  9. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1021949814000799
  10. https://www.iso.org/standard/55964.html
  11. http://eol.org/pages/590824/details
  12. https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Lavandula_latifolia
  13. https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/371559-Lavandula-latifolia
  14. https://aliksir.com/en/lavender-spike-lavandula-latifolia-essential-oil.html