Sea Salt

Sea Salt

Sea salt is mostly composed of sodium chloride, a compound that helps regulate fluid balance and blood pressure in the body. Since it is minimally processed, it contains some minerals, including potassium, iron, and calcium. This is one reason why it is often considered nutritionally superior to table salt, which is heavily ground and has had most of its nutrients removed.

Still, most people do not realize this distinction and consider sea salt to be healthier than table salt, as excessive sodium consumption has been linked to high blood pressure levels and an increased risk of heart disease. However, if the amount of sodium you consume exceeds the recommended limit or your personal tolerance, using sea salt in place of regular salt makes no difference.

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Benefits of Consuming Sea Salt

In general, salt can help you maintain adequate hydration and blood pressure levels. Since sodium plays a vital role in fluid balance, not getting enough of it can lead to dehydration, especially during high-intensity exercise.

Having proper fluid balance in the body is also important for maintaining healthy blood pressure levels. Therefore, consuming either too little or too much sodium can lead to changes in blood pressure in those who are sensitive to dietary salt.

Chloride is necessary to produce stomach acid, and sodium chloride (salt) facilitates the absorption and transportation of nutrients in the intestines after they have been broken down during digestion. Therefore, consuming enough salt promotes optimal digestive health.

The minimal processing of unrefined sea salt enables it to retain much of its natural mineral content. Sea salt contains many of the major electrolytes, like sodium, magnesium, calcium and potassium, that are essential to good health.

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Electrolytes have so many important functions — from regulating your heartbeat to allowing your muscles to contract so that you can move. Sea salt in moderation can help in avoiding an electrolyte imbalance, which can cause all kinds of serious negative symptoms, including some that are potentially deadly.

As a good source of sodium, sea salt is essential for proper brain, muscle and nervous system function. Not only does sodium play a role in regulating your body’s fluid balance, but it is also required for the transmission of electrical signals in the body. Without the proper transmission of electrical signals in the body, so many things can get thrown off.

Without this communication system working as it should, the brain, muscles and nervous systems are especially inclined to suffer. Both too much and too little sodium cause cellular malfunction. So as much as you hear about making sure you do not get too much salt in your diet, it is also just as important to make sure you get enough.

Benefits of Using Sea Salt

Taking a sea salt bath is thought to decrease skin dryness and inflammation. In fact, the National Eczema Foundation recommends adding 1 cup of sea salt to bathwater to help relieve irritation from eczema, a condition marked by red, itchy skin.

Dead Sea salt baths also help in improving the skin barrier function and eliminating the roughness and inflammation on the skin’s surface.

Soaking your tired feet in a warm sea salt solution helps relax the muscles, and relieve the soreness and pain in your aching feet.

Sea salt contains fluoride, which is beneficial for promoting dental health. Fluoride aids in protecting the teeth from acidic damage and prevents the development of caries and cavities. Regular rinsing and gargling with tepid sea saltwater help alleviate mouth sores, bleeding gums, ulcers, and the pain of sore throats. While fluoride is now added to the water in many countries around the world, sea salt was particularly important in the early 20th century, when many some countries did not have access to it this way.

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Dead Sea salts have been proven to be effective in providing therapeutic relief to patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. One study showed that participants in baths containing these salts demonstrated significant improvements in such ailments as compared to normal sodium chloride baths. These results are promising for an effective, natural method for providing relief in this population.

Sea salt finds another use in the cosmetic industry in the manufacturing of scrubs and other skin care products like antiperspirants and deodorants. Exfoliation with sea salts helps remove dead skin particles, tone up the skin tissues, encourage peripheral blood circulation, and promote skin renewal. Unlike table salt, the granular texture of sea salt works very well in providing clean and smooth skin.

Research studies have proven that the Dead Sea salt solution is also effective in providing relief from rhinosinusitis. The study also concluded that nasal irrigation and sprays done with sea salt showed better symptomatic relief as compared to those made of hypertonic saline solution. The anti-inflammatory effects of Dead Sea salts make them a natural and healthy alternative for relieving nasal allergies and other respiratory disorders; other remedies, such as nasal steroids have side effects like inflammation that can lead to mucus secretion. The mineral content present in Dead Sea salt may help alleviate swelling and congestion, as well.

Why Iodized Sea Salt?

Getting too little iodine — called iodine deficiency — is a serious issue. Iodine is an essential mineral used by the body to produce thyroid hormones. Too little iodine in a pregnant women’s diet can affect the development of the fetus’ brain and can cause cretinism, an irreversible form of physical and intellectual disability. Iodine deficiency during infancy can also result in abnormal brain development and impaired intellectual development.

Until nearly five years ago, Americans who got dairy, bread, and meat in their diets got plenty of iodine. Machines used in production were cleaned with an iodine disinfecting solution, so some iodine ended up in dairy, bread, meat products. That ended when companies quit using iodine disinfectant. Iodized salt is rarely found in canned, frozen, or boxed food. French fries and other snack foods mostly contain regular salt — not iodized salt. In fact, Americans now get one-third less iodine than they once did.

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Both newborns and toddlers are affected by iodine deficiency. A recent study showed lower IQ scores among children with mild iodine deficiency — proof that the problem exists in developed countries.

The normal requirement for iodine, according to World Health Organization standards: Adults need 150 micrograms a day. Women trying to get pregnant should increase their intake to 200 to 300 micrograms a day.

Side Effects of Too Little Salt

Too little salt — iodized salt, that is — is dangerous, too. It is the iodine in iodized salt that helps the body make thyroid hormone, which is critical to an infant’s brain development. A little salt is essential to good health. Healthy adults should consume salt and water to replace the amount lost daily through sweat and to achieve a diet that provides enough other essential nutrients. The American Heart Association and NIH advise adults to get no more than 2,400 milligrams of sodium daily. That is about 1 teaspoon of salt.

Side Effects of Too Much Salt

Consuming too much salt of any kind, including sea salt, can result in excessive sodium intake, which has been linked to high blood pressure and other health issues. The typical American diet contains a large amount of high-sodium processed foods, and most people in the United States consume more than the recommended amount of sodium. Overconsumption of sodium is associated with high blood pressure, osteoporosis, kidney stones, and other health issues. Therefore, even if you prefer sea salt over other types of salt, it does not offer any specific benefits and should be used in moderation like all other salts. Furthermore, people with kidney disease, high blood pressure, and heart failure may need to be particularly careful about their intake of sea salt and other salts.

References

https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/sea-salt-benefits

https://www.webmd.com/diet/features/salt-dont-ban-entirely

https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/other/health-benefits-of-sea-salt.html

https://www.mayoclinichealthsystem.org/hometown-health/speaking-of-health/is-sea-salt-healthier-than-table-salt

https://draxe.com/nutrition/10-benefits-celtic-sea-salt-himalayan-salt/

http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Mi-Oc/Mineral-Resources-from-the-Ocean.html

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230222395

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5098396/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18519109

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1410848/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5760509/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105387/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4129840/

https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/appendix-7/

https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/321505/nutrients

https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/359145/nutrients

Basics of Herbal Remedies

These are supplements or products made from whole plants or plant extracts that are prepared and consumed in different ways for the purpose of nourishment, prevention, and healing.

Common Types of Herbal Remedies

Spice: ground dried plant materials used in cooking, added to foods for additional flavoring and nourishment

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Tea: dried plant materials steeped in boiled water to extract nutrients and drunk, washed with, or used in a poultice on the skin.

Decoction: dried plant materials are boiled for a longer period to extract denser chemcial compounds for stronger healing medicines.

Infusion: dried plant material is soaked in a liquid base in a warm place to gently extract nutrients for use on the skin or as supplement. Ex – honey or oil.

Salve: liquid plant extracts and animal fats combined for external injury and wound healing.

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Balm: dense moisturizing blend of waxes, butters, and/or oils; heals cracked skin, dermatitis, psoriasis, eczema, etc.

Syrup: making a decoction of plant materials and then cooking it with a sweet base like maple syrup or honey until thick. Great for everyday remedies like for allergies or colds.

Standardized Extracts: encapsulated concentrated herbs, not always what they say, labeling often misleading

photo of jar near cinnamon sticks

Safely Healing Herbs & Spices

Gain benefits from eating, drinking, or soaking in any of these herbs.

Basil leaf: nourishing, balancing, clearing, toning

Black Pepper: anti-inflammatory, healing, warming, calming, pain relieving

Calendula flower: common marigold; anti-inflammatory, healing to mouth and digestive tract, soothing to rashes and irritation

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Catnip leaf: antianxiety, calming, relaxing, sedative, soothing

Chamomile flowers: anti-inflammatory, sedative, relaxing, pain relieving

Cinnamon bark: anti-inflammatory, detoxifying, sugar balancing, antioxidant

Dandelion Root & Leaf: nourishing to kidneys and liver, diuretic and water balancing, highly alkaline and reduces acidity

Echinacea root: antiviral, immune boosting, colds and flu, repiratory infections; should not be taken for more than 2 weeks in a row.

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Eucalyptus leaf: mucolytic, clearing, opening, healing, soothing, pain relieving, calms coughs and muscle spasms

Fennel seed: digestive, great for gas, nausea, upset stomach, heartburn

Ginger root: helps relieve every digestive issue, alleviates vertigo and motion sickness, and calms the nervous system.

Jasmine flowers: antidepressant,nourishing, calming, sedative, healing, balancing, regulating

Lavender flowers: calming, relaxing, balancing, soothing, and healing

Licorice root: digestive, calming, sweet, hormone balancing, sugar balancing

Marjoram leaf: mucolytic, cough suppressant, fights cold and flu, relaxing

Nettles leaf: antihistamine, clearing, balancing, detoxifying, nourishing

Oregano: antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, healing

Passionflower herb: calming, sedative, hormone balancing, aphrodisiac, nourishing, regulating of cycles

Peppermint leaf: digestive regulator, reduces heartburn, balances peristalsis, stimulating to system

Rose petals: nourishing, calming, soothing, healing, balancing, uplifting

Rose Hips (fruit): full of Vit C, more than oranges, nourishing and healing

Rosemary leaf: stimulating, healing, and regulating to therespiratory and digestive tracts.

Sage leaf: cough suppressant, antispasmodic, fights cold and flu

Thyme: anti-inflammatory, hormone balancer, antibiotic

Turmeric: anti-inflammatory, pain relief, antioxidant, healing, balancing, tonic

Yarrow flower & leaf: anti-inflammatory, headache relief, calming, clearing, detoxifying

Vitamins & Minerals

Vitamins and Minerals

These are considered essential nutrients—because acting in concert, they perform hundreds of roles in the body. They help shore up bones, heal wounds, and bolster your immune system. They also convert food into energy and repair cellular damage.

  • There is a fine line between getting enough of these nutrients and getting too much.
  • Eating a healthy diet remains the best way to get the vitamins and minerals you need.
  • Although they are all considered micronutrients, vitamins and minerals differ in basic ways. Vitamins are organic and can be broken down by heat, air, or acid. Minerals are inorganic and hold on to their chemical structure.
  • Minerals in soil and water easily find their way into your body through the plants, fish, animals, and fluids you consume.
  • Vitamins from food and other sources are harder to get into your body because cooking, storage, and simple exposure to air can inactivate these fragile compounds.
  • Vitamin D enables your body to pluck calcium from food sources passing through your digestive tract rather than harvesting it from your bones. Vitamin C helps you absorb iron.
  • The interplay of micronutrients isn’t always cooperative; vitamin C blocks your body’s ability to assimilate the essential mineral copper and even a minor overload of manganese can worsen iron deficiency.

Water-Soluble Vitamins

These are packed into the watery portions of the foods you eat. They are absorbed directly into the bloodstream as food is broken down during digestion or as a supplement dissolves. Your kidneys continuously regulate levels of water-soluble vitamins; excess goes out in urine.

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  • B vitamins: Biotin (vitamin B7), Folic acid (folate, vitamin B9), Niacin (vitamin B3), Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), Riboflavin (vitamin B2), Thiamin (vitamin B1), Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C

Here are some examples of how different vitamins help you maintain health: Generally, water-soluble vitamins should be replenished every few days.

  • Release energy. Several B vitamins are key components that help release energy from food.
  • Produce energy. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, and biotin for energy production.
  • Build proteins and cells. B6, B12, and folic acid metabolize amino acids; help cells multiply.
  • Make collagen. One of many roles played by vitamin C is to help make collagen, which knits together wounds, supports blood vessel walls, and forms a base for teeth and bones.
  • Can stay in the body for long periods of time; several years’ supply of vitamin B12 in your liver; folic acid and vitamin C stores can last more than a couple of days.
  • Very high doses of B6—many times the recommended amount of 1.3 milligrams (mg) per day for adults—can damage nerves, causing numbness and muscle weakness.

Fat-soluble vitamins

These gain entry to the blood via lymph channels in the intestinal wall and travel through the body only under escort by proteins that act as carriers. These include: Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E and Vitamin K. Together this vitamin quartet helps keep your eyes, skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and nervous system in good repair. Here are some of the other essential roles these vitamins play:

  • Build bones. Bone formation is impossible without vitamins A, D, and K.
  • Protect vision. Vitamin A also helps keep cells healthy and protects vision.
  • Interact favorably. Without vitamin E = difficult to absorb/store vitamin A.
  • Protect the body. Vitamin E also acts as an antioxidant.
  • Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in your body for long periods; toxic levels can build up most likely when taking supplements, rare to get too much of a vitamin just from food.

Major minerals

These are no more important to your health than the trace minerals; they’re just present in your body in greater amounts. Travel through the body in various ways. Potassium, for example, is quickly absorbed into the bloodstream, where it circulates freely and is excreted by the kidneys, much like a water-soluble vitamin. Calcium is more like a fat-soluble vitamin because it requires a carrier for absorption and transport. Major minerals include: Calcium, Chloride, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium and Sulfur.

One of the key tasks of major minerals is to maintain the proper balance of water in the body. Sodium, chloride, and potassium take the lead in doing this. Three other major minerals—calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium—are important for healthy bones. Sulfur helps stabilize protein structures, including some of those that make up hair, skin, and nails. Having too much of one major mineral can result in a deficiency of another. Here are two examples:

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  • Salt overload: Calcium binds with excess sodium in the body and is excreted when the body senses that sodium levels must be lowered: too much sodium through table salt or processed foods means losing needed calcium as your body rids itself of the surplus sodium.
  • Excess phosphorus: can hamper your ability to absorb magnesium.

Trace minerals

Their contributions are just as essential as those of major minerals, they include: Chromium, Copper, Fluoride, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Selenium and Zinc. Trace minerals carry out a diverse set of tasks. Here are a few examples:

  • Iron is best known for ferrying oxygen throughout the body.
  • Fluoride strengthens bones and wards off tooth decay.
  • Zinc helps blood clot, is essential for taste and smell, and bolsters the immune response.
  • Copper helps form several enzymes; assists with iron metabolism and the creation of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood.

Too much of one can cause or contribute to a deficiency of another. Here are some examples:

  • A minor overload of manganese can exacerbate iron deficiency.
  • Too little iodine thyroid hormone production slows, causing sluggishness and weight gain as well as other health concerns. The problem worsens if the body also has too little selenium.

The difference between “just enough” and “too much” of the trace minerals is often tiny. Generally, food is a safe source of trace minerals, but if you take supplements, it’s important to make sure you’re not exceeding safe levels.

Antioxidant

A term for any compound that can counteract unstable molecules such as free radicals that damage DNA, cell membranes, and other parts of cells. Your body cells naturally produce plenty of antioxidants to put on patrol. The foods you eat—and, perhaps, some of the supplements you take—are another source of antioxidant compounds. Carotenoids (such as lycopene in tomatoes and lutein in kale) and flavonoids (such as anthocyanins in blueberries, quercetin in apples and onions, and catechins in green tea) are antioxidants. The vitamins C and E and the mineral selenium also have antioxidant properties. Antioxidants are able to neutralize marauders such as free radicals by giving up some of their own electrons.

Free radicals

Are a natural byproduct of energy metabolism and are also generated by ultraviolet rays, tobacco smoke, and air pollution. Free radicals have a well-deserved reputation for causing cellular damage. When immune system cells muster to fight intruders, the oxygen they use spins off an army of free radicals that destroys viruses, bacteria, and damaged body cells in an oxidative burst. Vitamin C can then disarm the free radicals.

Sandalwood

Sandalwood (Santalum spicatum & album)

Sandalwood is a commercially and culturally important plant species especially in India belonging to the family Santalaceae. The wood is valued in carving because of its dense character. Sandalwood oil is extracted from the heartwood by steam distillation. The average yield of oil ranges from 3.0% to 6.0%. The sweet, powerful, and lasting odor has made sandalwood oil useful in the perfume industry, soaps, candles, incense, folk medicine, and religious and cultural purposes for centuries.

In addition, the wood and its powder are used for religious and medicinal purposes, and the food industry, especially in India. The sandalwood tree flourishes in regions where the climate is cool with moderate rainfall, plentiful sunshine, and long periods of dry weather. The tree is planted in different states of India but large commercial cultivation state is Karnataka. The trees are slow growing and usually take about 30 years for the heartwood to become economically useful in India.

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Santalum spicatum is used by aromatherapists and perfumers. The oil concentration differs considerably from other Santalum species. In the 1840s, sandalwood was Western Australia’s biggest export earner. Oil was distilled for the first time in 1875, and by the turn of the 20th century, production of Australian sandalwood oil was intermittent.

Santalum album is a threatened species indigenous to South India and grows in the Western Ghats and a few other mountain ranges such as the Kalrayan and Shevaroy Hills. Although sandalwood trees in India, Pakistan, and Nepal are government-owned and their harvest is controlled, many trees are illegally cut down.

In Kununurra in Western Australia, Indian sandalwood is grown on a large scale. This species is the primary source of sandalwood used in commercial oil production and should not be confused with West Indian Sandalwood, Amyris balsamifera.

Major Constituents

(Z)-a-Santalol, (Z)-B-Santalol, (Z)-Nuciferol, epi-B-Santalol & (Z)-a-trans-Bergamotol

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Sandalwood Essential Oil Uses

Bronchitis, Chapped Skin, Depression, Dry Skin, Laryngitis, Leucorrhea, Oily Skin, Scars, Sensitive Skin, Stress, & Stretch Marks

In traditional medicine, sandalwood oil has been used as an antiseptic and astringent, and for the treatment of headache, stomachache, and urinary and genital disorders.

In India, the essential oil, emulsion, or paste of sandalwood is used in the treatment of inflammatory and eruptive skin diseases.

The oil has been used in the traditional Ayurvedic medicinal system as a diuretic and mild stimulant, and for smoothing the skin.

The leaves and bark were used by early Hawaiians to treat dandruff, lice, skin inflammation, and sexually transmitted diseases.

Sandalwood oil has also demonstrated repellency against the crop pest Tetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite).

Side Effects

When taken by mouth: White sandalwood is likely safe when taken by mouth in food amounts. But it is unsafe when taken by mouth as a medicine for longer than 6 weeks. There have been reports of kidney damage with prolonged use. White sandalwood can also cause itching, nausea, and stomach upset.

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Medication Interactions

Lithium interacts with WHITE SANDALWOOD: sandalwood might have an effect like a water pill or “diuretic.” Taking sandalwood might decrease how well the body gets rid of lithium. This could increase how much lithium is in the body and result in serious side effects. Talk with your healthcare provider before using this product if you are taking lithium. Your lithium dose might need to be changed.

References

https://www.aromaweb.com/essential-oils/sandalwood-oil.asp

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandalwood

https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-116/white-sandalwood

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5749697/

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https://www.sciencedirect.com/book/9780124166417/essential-oils-in-food-preservation-flavor-and-safety

Julia Lawless, The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils (Updated Edition) (London: Harper Thorsons, 2014), 179-180.

Common Sage

Sage Leaf & Oil (Salvia officinalis)

Salvia officinalis (sage, also called garden sage, common sage, or culinary sage) is a perennial, evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers. It is a member of the mint family Lamiaceae and native to the Mediterranean region, though it has been naturalized in many places throughout the world. It has a long history of medicinal and culinary use, and in modern times it has been used as an ornamental garden plant. The common name “sage” is also used for a number of related and unrelated species.

Sage is an herb. The leaf is used to make medicine. There are many species of sage. The two most common species are common sage (Salvia officinalis) and Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia). Sage is used for Alzheimer disease, diabetes, high cholesterol, and symptoms of menopause. Sage might help with chemical imbalances in the brain that cause symptoms of Alzheimer disease. It might also improve how the body uses insulin and sugar.

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Like many herb and spice oils, Sage is helpful for digestive issues. It can help relieve symptoms of stress, such as emotional exhaustion, nervousness, mental fatigue, and head and neck tension. Also, Sage is a powerful oil that can be neurotoxic in large amounts. It is recommended to be used at a maximum dilution of 0.4%. This oil should also not be used while pregnant or breastfeeding.

The health benefits of sage essential oil can be attributed to its properties as an antifungal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antibacterial, cholagogic and choleretic, cicatrizant, depurative, digestive, disinfectant, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, laxative, and a stimulating substance.

This essential oil is extracted by steam distillation of sage leaves and is constituted mainly of aesculetin, alpha-humulene, alpha thujene, alpha-thujone, alpha-terpineol, alpha terpenes, alpha-pinene, alpha maaliene, aromadendrene, beta-pinene, beta copaene, beta-thujone, borneol, camphor, cineole, caryophyllene oxide, camphene, delta cadinenes, linalool, limonene, myrcene, ocimene, octanol, paracymene, para cymenol, salviol, terpineol, thujanol, and terpinolene.

Blending: Essential oil of sage blends well with the essential oils of Clary Sage, Geranium, Ginger, Lavender, Orange, Vetiver, Neroli, Rosemary and Tea tree.

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Benefits of Consuming Sage

Alzheimer disease. Taking extracts of two different sage species, common sage and Spanish sage, for 4 months seems to improve learning, memory and information processing in people with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease.

Diabetes. Taking common sage leaf extract three times daily for 3 months lowers fastingblood sugar and average blood sugar over time (HbA1c) in diabetes patients.

High cholesterol. Taking common sage three times daily for 2 or 3 months reduces “bad” low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and blood fats called triglycerides. It also increases “good” high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, in people with high cholesterol.

Symptoms of menopause. Research shows that taking common sage extract for 8-12 weeks improves symptoms of menopause, especially hot flashes and night sweats.

Decline in memory and thinking skills that occurs normally with age. Taking a single dose of common sage extract might improve some measures of memory in healthy older adults.

Hot flashes in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer. Early research shows that taking common sage extract three times daily for 4 weeks reduces the severity and frequency of hot flashes in men receiving this treatment.

Lung cancer. Some research suggests that people who regularly use sage as a spice may have a 54% lower chance of developing lung cancer than those who don’t use sage as a spice.

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Memory. Taking a single dose of common sage extract or Spanish sage essential oil by mouth seems to improve some measures of memory in healthy adults. But these sage species do not seem to improve memory when used as aromatherapy.

Sore throat (pharyngitis). Using a spray containing common sage extract 15% reduces throat pain in people with a sore throat. But sprays containing higher (30%) and lower (5%) amounts of common sage extract do not seem to reduce throat pain.

A hormonal disorder that causes enlarged ovaries with cysts (polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS). Some research shows that taking sage helps to reduce some, but not all, symptoms in people with PCOS.

Sunburn. Applying an ointment containing common sage extract to the skin after exposure to UV light seems to reduce the development of skin redness.

Dosing BY MOUTH:

For Alzheimer disease: 1 gram of sage per day. A dose of sage extract, gradually increased over time to 2.5 mg three times daily, has also been used.

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For diabetes: 500 mg of common sage extract has been used three times per day for 3 months.

For high cholesterol: 500 mg of common sage extract has been used three times per day for 2 or 3 months.

For symptoms of menopause: 300 mg of common sage extract has been used daily for 12 weeks. Also, 280 mg daily of a specific thujone-free common sage extract (Sage Menopause, Bioforce AG) has been used for 8 weeks.

Benefits of Using Sage Oil

Antifungal: The presence of camphor and camphene in this essential oil gives it an antifungal property. This oil can inhibit fungal infections, both internally and externally, and gives relief from fungal infections like dysentery, skin diseases, Athlete’s Foot or dermatitis. This property is one of the causes behind its use in skincare products.

Antimicrobial: The components in sage essential oil which give protection against fungal infections also provide protection against microbial infections too. Therefore, you can protect small wounds or cuts from developing irritating or potentially dangerous infections, as confirmed by a report published in the African Journal of Biotechnology.

Antibacterial: This oil is equally useful at countering bacterial infections since it kills bacteria and inhibits their growth in the body. This property can also be used to heal ailments like bacterial infections in the ears, nose, throat, eyes, genitals, urethra, colon, intestines as well as on the skin and in wounds.

Antioxidant: This is perhaps the most valuable aspect of this essential oil and the reason behind its extensive use in anti-aging and skin treatment products. Sage gets it potent antioxidant power from rosmarinic acid and carnosic acid. Antioxidants, as the name suggests, act against oxidants or free radicals in the body, which are the main causes of aging. These antioxidants slow down aging and prevent symptoms like wrinkles, sagging skin, and muscles, reduction in vision and hearing capabilities, malfunctioning of the brain, memory loss, degeneration of tissues, macular degeneration, and nervous disorders.

Antiseptic: Since it has antimicrobial, antibacterial, and antifungal properties, it serves as an antiseptic for wounds, surgical incisions, post-natal injuries, ulcers, and sores.

Anti-inflammatory: It reduces inflammation on the skin, inflammation due to fever, and prevents the entry of poisonous material into the bloodstream. It also reduces the effects of excessive intoxicants and narcotics, ingestion of excessive salty or spicy food, the influence of hot winds, etc. A study in Pharmaceutical Biology journal suggests that it helps cure inflammation in the stomach, intestines, and excretory tracts too.

Antispasmodic: This property of sage essential oil is useful in treating all problems that arise from spasms, including pain in the stomach, chest, and intestines, as well as coughs, convulsions, and cramps.

Cholagogue & Choleretic: According to the International Journal of Biology, sage promotes the discharge of bile. Sage essential oil helps in digestion, soothing the stomach, and improving the functionality of the whole digestive system against inflammation caused by excessive acids. It also neutralizes acids in the stomach and the bloodstream, thereby providing relief from acidity and acidosis, which in turn protects us from peptic ulcers due to acidity, as well as from boils, eruptions, and skin diseases that occur when acid levels rise in the blood.

Cicatrisant: This is yet another property which has given sage essential oil a strong place in the world of cosmetics as a key ingredient of anti-mark and anti-spot cream. Sage oil helps to eliminate scars, post-natal abdominal stretch marks, and blemishes caused due to boils, pox, and sores. It also helps in quick healing of wounds and incisions.

Depurative: Sage essential oil speeds up the removal of toxins from the blood through excretion or sweating and thus purifies the blood, acting as a depurative.

Digestive: It acts as a digestive medicine in case of indigestion by facilitating the decomposition of food. It does so by promoting the secretion of bile and gastric juices and by inhibiting microbial growth in the digestive system, which interferes with the digestive process.

Disinfectant: The antibacterial, antifungal, antimicrobial, and antiseptic properties of essential oil of sage make it an effective disinfectant, as it gives sound protection from both internal and external infections.

Emmenagogue: This essential oil regularizes menstrual cycles and helps relieve obstructed menses. It activates certain hormones, such as estrogen, which helps to bring about clear menstruation and gives relief from problems like a headache, nausea, weakness, fatigue, depression, mood swings, and other associated symptoms of periods.

Expectorant: It can give you relief from a cough, cold, and infections in your chest and respiratory tracts. It also provides relief from congestion that results from the common cold.

Febrifuge: Sage essential oil reduces fevers by fighting infections and reducing inflammation caused by them.

Laxative: It facilitates excretion and eliminates constipation by promoting the discharge of certain fluids, as well as stimulating the intestines.

Stimulant: If all the properties of this essential oil are to be described with a single term, ‘stimulant’ would be the appropriate one. Most of the properties it displays are different expressions of this property. It stimulates the brain, nervous system, liver, spleen, and the circulatory and excretory systems, thereby activating and optimizing them.

Other Benefits: Sage essential oil helps to manage dermatitis, herpes, psoriasis, sinusitis, asthma and bronchitis, accumulation of phlegm, cerebral palsy, depression, sciatica, and lumbago as well as induces mental stability, alertness.

Side Effects of Using Sage

When taken by mouth: Sage is likely safe in amounts typically used in foods. It is possibly safe when taken by mouth in medicinal amounts, for up to 4 months. But sage is possibly unsafe when taken by mouth in high doses or for a long time. Some species of sage, such as common sage (Salvia officinalis), contain a chemical called thujone. Thujone can be poisonous if you take too much. This chemical can cause seizures and damage the liver and nervous system. The amount of thujone varies with the species of sage, the time of harvest, growing conditions, and other factors.

Special Precautions and Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Taking sage during pregnancy is LIKELY UNSAFE because of the possibility of consuming thujone, a chemical found in some sage. Thujone can bring on a woman’s menstrual period, and this could cause a miscarriage. Avoid sage if you are breast-feeding, too. There is some evidence that thujone might reduce the supply of mother’s milk.

Diabetes: Sage might lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes and use sage. The dose of your diabetes medications may need to be adjusted by your healthcare provider.

Hormone-sensitive condition such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids: Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia) might have the same effects as the female hormone estrogen. If you have any condition that might be made worse by exposure to estrogen, don’t use Spanish sage.

High blood pressure, low blood pressure: Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia) might increase blood pressure in some people with high blood pressure. On the other hand, common sage (Salvia officinalis) might lower blood pressure in people with blood pressure that is already low. Be sure to monitor your blood pressure.

Seizure disorders: One species of sage (Salvia officinalis) contains significant amounts of thujone, a chemical that can trigger seizures. If you have a seizure disorder, don’t take sage in amounts higher than those typically found in food.

Surgery: Common sage might affect blood sugar levels. There is a concern that it might interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. Stop using common sage as a medicine at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Medication Interactions

Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs) interacts with SAGE: Sage might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking sage along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed. Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.

Medications used to prevent seizures (Anticonvulsants) interacts with SAGE: Medications used to prevent seizures affect chemicals in the brain. Sage may also affect chemicals in the brain. By affecting chemicals in the brain, sage may decrease the effectiveness of medications used to prevent seizures. Some medications used to prevent seizures include phenobarbital, primidone (Mysoline), valproic acid (Depakene), gabapentin (Neurontin), carbamazepine (Tegretol), phenytoin (Dilantin), and others.

Sedative medications (CNS depressants) interact with SAGE: Sage might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking sage along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness. Some sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), phenobarbital (Donnatal), zolpidem (Ambien), and others.

References

https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/essential-oils/sage-essential-oil.html

https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-504/sage

https://www.aromaweb.com/essential-oils/dalmatian-sage-oil.asp

https://www.planttherapy.com/sage-dalmatian-essential-oil

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvia_officinalis

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3809930/

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292293630_Dalmatian_Sage_Salvia_officinalis_L_A_Review_of_Biochemical_Contents_Medical_Properties_and_Genetic_Diversity

https://www.acanceresearch.com/cancer-research/medicinal-property-of-sage-saliva-for-curing-illnesses-such-as-obesity-diabetes-depression-dementia-lupus-autism-heart-disease-and.php?aid=8089

https://bhma.info/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/SalviaMonograph1.pdf

https://www.iso.org/standard/17791.html

https://europepmc.org/article/pmc/6473381

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4003706/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5318325/

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10552494/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5634728/

Rosemary Leaf & Oil

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)

The rosemary plant, Rosmarinus officinalis L (family Lamiaceae), is an aromatic evergreen shrub originating in the Mediterranean region and now growing widely in Europe, Asia, and Africa. This plant has been used extensively as a culinary spice in a variety of contexts. Rosemary and its extracts also are used as food preservatives and enhancers of sensory and functional properties. Today, research attention is focusing more closely on whether this herb may have potential to alleviate complications of obesity and diabetes, inflammation-associated conditions, and neurological deficits.

Recent research has shown that whether consumed as an essential oil, tea or seasoning, rosemary benefits can include promoting digestive health, mental clarity, hair and skin health, relaxation and more.

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Rosemary Nutrition

According to USDA, fresh rosemary has a high reserve of vitamins such as vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B6, thiamin, and folate. It contains minerals like magnesium, calcium, and iron. Moreover, it has abundant antioxidants in the form of phenolic compounds like diterpene, carnosol, and rosmarinic acid. The essential oils in it contain powerful ingredients such as cineol, camphene, borneol, bornyl acetate, α-terpineol, and α-pinene.

Benefits of Consuming Rosemary Leaf

Antimicrobial. Within rosemary there are compounds that can help defend against proliferation of certain types of harmful bacteria, including those that contribute to infections. Rosemary extracts are even used as food preservatives in some cases because they can help stop bacteria from growing. The smell of rosemary also acts as a natural bug repellent and may help prevent certain insect bites, including from ticks and other bugs that can spread illnesses and viruses.

Antioxidants. Because of its rich supply of antioxidants and bioactive chemicals (including phenolic diterpenes, such as carnosol and caffeoyl derivatives), consuming rosemary can help fight oxidative stress and support the immune system. It is also known to promote healthy circulation and to defend against inflammation, which can lead to pain. Another way that rosemary’s antioxidants can be beneficial is due to the ability to promote skin health by fighting free radical damage that leads to signs of aging.

Cancer. Rosemary contains carnosic acid, a compound known for its powerful antioxidant properties. Studies have found that carnosic acid can slow the growth of cancer cells in the body and even lower the risk of developing tumors.

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Gut Health. Rosemary has traditionally been used as a natural remedy for upset stomach, constipation, gas, bloating as it helps in relaxing the muscles of the intestine. Adding it to your diet can help you regulate your bowel movements and your gastrointestinal system. One study showed that in test subjects with colitis, treatment with rosemary extract was effective to reduce colon tissue lesions and colitis. This, in turn, helps maintain gut health and fight gut diseases like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and colitis.

Immune Support. Studies have shown that the carnosic and rosmarinic acids in rosemary have powerful antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties. Consuming rosemary regularly can potentially help lower the risk of infection and help the immune system fight any infections that do occur.

Indigestion. This herb, whether cooked with or steeped in herbal tea, has long been a natural remedy for digestive issues, including loss of appetite, heart burn/acid reflux, gas, bloating and abdominal pains. It seems capable of stimulating the release of digestive fluids including bile, which assists in digestion and can support normal nutrient absorption.

Low blood pressure. Early research shows that taking rosemary oil three times per day increases the top number in a blood pressure reading (systolic blood pressure) and the bottom number (diastolic blood pressure) in people with low blood pressure. Blood pressure seems to return to pretreatment values once rosemary use is stopped.

Memory. Taking rosemary by mouth may mildly improve memory in young adults. Using rosemary aromatherapy seems to improve some measures of memory. Rosemary aromatherapy also seems to increase alertness.

Decline in memory and thinking skills that occurs normally with age. Early research shows that taking powdered rosemary leaves might improve memory speed in healthy, older adults. But higher doses seem worsen memory. Other early research shows that taking a product containing rosemary, lemon balm, and sage improves memory in healthy adults 62 years or younger. But it does not seem to improve memory in adults 63 years or older.

Metabolic Health. Rosemary has been associated with metabolic benefits including helping to treat high blood sugar and poor insulin sensitivity. While it likely will not be enough to prevent diabetes on its own, it is recommended for people who wish to improve their high blood sugar levels.

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Withdrawal from heroin, morphine, and other opioid drugs. Early research suggests that taking rosemary leaves along with methadone, improves opioid withdrawal symptoms.

Benefits of Using Rosemary Oil

Hair Growth. Rosemary oil helps to promote hair growth, prevent baldness, slow graying, and treat dandruff. A comparative study published in 2015 shows that rosemary oil is effective in treating alopecia by boosting hair growth. At six months, a significant increase in hair count was noted for the group treated with rosemary oil. It also promotes healing by increasing microcirculation of the scalp and decreases hair loss after shampooing.

Male-pattern baldness (androgenic alopecia). Early research suggests that applying rosemary oil to the scalp is as effective as minoxidil for increasing hair count in people with male-pattern baldness.

Mental Activity. Rosemary essential oil is an excellent brain and nerve tonic. It is often used by students during exam times because it increases concentration and helps in studying efficiently. It stimulates mental activity and is a good remedy for depression, mental fatigue and forgetfulness. Inhaling rosemary oil seems lift your spirits immediately. Whenever your brain is tired, try inhaling a little rosemary oil to remove boredom and renew your mental energy.

Pain Relief. The ability of rosemary essential oil to relieve pain has resulted in its extensive use in treating headaches, muscle pains, rheumatism and even arthritis. Massaging the affected area that is in pain with rosemary essential oil can give quickly relieve the pain. Vapor baths with rosemary oil are also found to be effective in the treatment of rheumatism. It has certain anti-inflammatory qualities as well, which makes it perfect for relieving the pain from sprains and joint aches. Furthermore, it is known to stimulate blood circulation, which can relieve pain and aid in coagulation of wounds for faster healing.

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Respiratory Problems. The benefits of rosemary essential oil in treating respiratory problems are well-researched and supported. The scent of the oil has been shown to give relief from throat congestion, and it is also used in the treatment of respiratory allergies, colds, sore throats and the flu. Since rosemary oil also has antiseptic qualities, it is also effective for respiratory infections. The oil is antispasmodic and is therefore used in some treatment programs for bronchial asthma.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Recent research suggests that the use of rosemary essential oil’s antimicrobial qualities can help reduce the effects and recurring inflammation of the herpes virus. The herpes virus can quickly develop immunity to normal antiviral medication, so alternative methods are always being explored. Several studies have now shown the essential oil of rosemary to be an effective option for reducing the symptoms of the Herpes virus in test subjects, and even affects the level of contagiousness of the virus.

Skin care. Rosemary essential oil is not used in skin care as extensively as it is used in hair care, but it does have antimicrobial and antiseptic qualities that make it beneficial in efforts to eliminate eczema, dermatitis, oily skin, and acne. Topical application of the essential oil, or regular massage with the oil helps in toning your skin and removing dryness. It can also give your skin a healthy, even glow when applied regularly, or when it is a main component of your moisturizers and other creams.

Stress. Some early research suggests that rosemary and lavender oil aromatherapy may reduce pulse rates, but not blood pressure, in people taking tests. Rosemary may have a calming effect on those who suffer from anxiety and depression. An animal study conducted on the antidepressant effects of rosemary concluded that the herb is effective in improving the symptoms of depression. These beneficial effects were observed even with repeated administration two weeks later. Furthermore, it may also reduce cortisol (the stress hormone) levels, which helps ease tension in the body.

Dosing of Rosemary

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH: For memory: 500 milligrams of rosemary extract twice daily for one month has been used.

INHALED AS AROMATHERAPY: For memory: Four drops of pure rosemary essential oil (Tisserand Aromatherapy) has been applied to an aromatherapy diffuser pad 5 minutes before testing.

Ways to Eat Rosemary

  • It is made into herbal tea to promote digestive health and relaxation.
  • It helps season meats in the cuisines of Europe and the Middle East.
  • It is often found in marinades for lamb, pork, turkey and chicken dishes.
  • Rosemary leaves are added to soups and beverages in India for their flavor and nutrient content.
  • Whether dried or fresh, it is added to stews, casseroles, fish, potatoes, salads, pastas, and breads in many European countries.
  • The Spruce Eats recommends also pairing it with grains, mushrooms, onions, peas and spinach.

Rosemary Tea

  1. To make rosemary herbal tea, combine 1 teaspoon of chopped herbs (preferably fresh) with 8 ounces of water.
  2. Steep the herbs for 5 minutes or longer, depending on the strength you’re looking for.
  3. You can also add other herbs and flavor enhancers, including lavender, thyme, parsley, lemon juice or raw honey.
  4. Consuming about 1–2 cups daily is safe for most, although use caution if you take any medications

Side Effects of Consuming Rosemary

Consuming large amounts of Rosemary leaf or essential oil can cause vomiting, uterine bleeding, kidney irritation, increased sun sensitivity, skin redness, and allergic reactions.

Rosemary might stimulate menstruation or affect the uterus, causing a miscarriage. There is not enough reliable information to know if rosemary is safe when applied to the skin when pregnant. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Aspirin allergy. Rosemary contains a chemical that is like aspirin. This chemical may cause a reaction in people who are allergic to aspirin.

Bleeding disorders. Rosemary might increase the risk of bleeding and bruising in people with bleeding disorders. Use cautiously.

Seizure disorders. Rosemary might make seizure disorders worse. Do not use it.

Medication Interactions

Rosemary has the potential to alter urination, blood clotting and blood pressure levels, which means it can potentially interact with certain medications and should be avoided in these cases. Speak with your doctor before adding large amounts or rosemary or this essential oil to your diet if you take these drugs:

  • Anticoagulants/blood thinners
  • ACE inhibitors for high blood pressure
  • Diuretics
  • Lithium for mental health disorders

References

https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-154/rosemary

https://www.webmd.com/diet/health-benefits-rosemary

https://draxe.com/nutrition/rosemary-benefits/

https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/herbs-and-spices/rosemary.html

https://journals.lww.com/nutritiontodayonline/fulltext/2016/03000/rosemary__an_overview_of_potential_health_benefits.9.aspx

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4749867/

https://www.indigo-herbs.co.uk/natural-health-guide/benefits/rosemary

https://organic.org/health-benefits-of-rosemary-oil/

Eating Right, Not Dieting

Consider the prospect of never having to diet again. Simply by eating nutritious foods and avoiding counting calories. Consider some nutrition facts below.

Nutrition

The process of breaking down food and substances taken in by the mouth to use for energy in the body. Now more focused on the steps of biochemical sequences through which substances inside us and other living organisms are transformed from one form to another – metabolism and metabolic pathways.  Nutrition also focuses on how diseases, conditions and problems can be prevented or lessened with a healthy diet. In addition, nutrition involves identifying how certain diseases, conditions or problems may be caused by dietary factors, such as poor diet (malnutrition), food allergies, metabolic diseases, etc.  The human body consists of elements and compounds (nutrients) ingested, digested, absorbed, and circulated through the bloodstream to feed the cells of the body.

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Nutrients

There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, minerals, protein, vitamins, and water. These nutrient classes can be categorized as either macro-nutrients (needed in relatively large amounts) or micronutrients (needed in smaller quantities).

  1. The macronutrients include carbohydrates (including fiber), fats, protein, and water. The micronutrients are minerals and vitamins. The macronutrients (excluding fiber and water) provide structural material (amino acids from which proteins are built, and lipids from which cell membranes and some signaling molecules are built) and energy. Some of the structural material can be used to generate energy internally, and in either case it is measured in Joules or kilocalories.
  2. Other micronutrients include antioxidants and phytochemicals, which are said to influence (or protect) some body systems.

Nutrient Dense Foods

These are fresh, unprocessed foods that were grown or raised in the best, most natural conditions.  They possess and provide the most nutrients per ounce of food; the nutrients are combined within in a way to promote proper utilization within the human body.  In other words, they contain a variety of nutrients in specific combinations necessary for proper digestion, absorption, and use within the body.  When foods are processed, their molecular structure is broken down and certain components are lost, especially delicate vitamins and minerals, thus making processed foods empty calories that have little nutritional value. 

Diet and Physical Health

A nutritious diet is essential to promote and maintain overall physical health for any age.  The body needs nutrients in their naturally occurring forms to function and heal appropriately.  A diet full of nutrient dense foods provides the most effective nutrient combinations for promoting optimal physical health and helping the body to maintain its strength and integrity, defeat infection, and deter cancer development.  The best diet for health is one composed of wholesome and fresh foods that are prepared by hand and not processed for ease of consumption.  Avoiding white flour and high fructose corn syrup as much as possible can help to greatly decrease inflammation and promote joint health. 

Guidelines for Healthy Eating:

  • Aiming for regular, balanced meals and snacks, every day.
  • Hitting most of the major food groups each day to meet your needs for growth and health. 
  • Balancing nutrition-rich foods with small to moderate amounts of other foods like sweets or fast foods. 
  • Eating when hungry and stopping when full.
  • Learning about nutrition, but keeping your food as just one important part of your life, not obsessing over what you eat. 

Healthy eating habits are essential to maintaining a healthy weight and a person’s weight is the result of several factors:

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  • How much and what kinds of foods you eat.
  • Your physiologic and genetic make-up.
  • Your age and health status.
  • Whether your lifestyle includes regular physical activity.
  • Whether you use food to respond to stress and other situations in your life.

Reading Labels

A big part of healthy eating is understanding what is in the packaged foods you’re buying.  Understanding labels and product contents is very useful for planning a healthy menu.  Reading product labels is a simple habit to establish that can ensure you are purchasing the least processed foods containing the least amount of chemical additives possible.  If you cannot pronounce what is on the label then you should not be eating it. 

Rose Water

Rose Water

Rose water, derived from its petals, is good for rejuvenating skin and fighting skin problems like allergies and acne.

Therapeutic Compounds Found in Rose Water

  • Geraniol, which has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-cancer effects
  • Citronellyl acetate, which gives rose its pleasant flavor and aroma
  • Citronellol (also found in citronella)
  • Eugenol, a powerful antioxidant that fights oxidative stress
  • Methyl eugenol, a natural antiseptic and anesthetic
  • Nerol, a natural antibiotic compound
  • Citral, which has antimicrobial properties
  • Carvone, which acts as a digestive aid
composition of cosmetic bottle with pink rose petals and wooden plate
Photo by Karolina Grabowska on Pexels.com

Benefits of Using Rose Water

Acne: rose water is anti-inflammatory and astringent. A few drops on a cotton ball and clean your face with it.

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Dandruff: using rose water on hair makes it stronger, shiner and less prone to dandruff. Its anti-inflammatory and antiseptic properties can also help defend against dermatitis on the scalp and ingrown hairs.

Eye Strain: rose water is healing and cooling. Dip a cotton ball in rose water and place over closed eye for 15 minutes.

Skin Allergies: the anti-inflammatory and healing properties of rose water calm and sooth irritated skin.

Sore Throat: using water as a gargle can relieve inflammation and heal irritated tissues.

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Stress: the fragrance of rose is a mood enhancer it helps to calm the nerves and bring relaxation for better sleep.

References:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/rose-water

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rose_water

Rose Buds, Petals & Hips

Rose Buds, Petals & Hips

Rose (Rosa centifolia) is used in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine for managing various diseases.

Rose powder or petal jam is useful in managing digestive problems like hyperacidity and diarrhea due to its anti-inflammatory properties.

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Rose tea is useful for soothing digestive tract, calming the mind and reducing internal inflammation.

Rose oil in a diffuser can help calm and soothe the senses as its fragrance is a powerful mood enhancer.

Benefits of Consuming Roses

Chronic Disease due to oxidative stress. This is caused by free radicals, which are natural byproducts of cellular metabolism that can cause healthy cells to mutate. By increasing the number of antioxidants in our body, including myrcene, quercetin, and myrcene from rose tea, it is possible to lower your risk of experiencing some chronic health conditions.

Diarrhea is due to the consumption of contaminated food and water. Apart from this, weak digestive fire is also one of the reasons behind diarrhea. All these factors are responsible for irritating the digestive tract and increasing peristalsis.

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Hyperacidity means an increased level of acid in the stomach. An aggravated Pitta impairs the digestive fire, leading to improper digestion of food. Regular intake of Rose powder helps to reduce the acid level in the stomach.

Low Mood due to stress or depression. The naturally uplifting quality of rose tea makes this an excellent choice for those who are feeling down, depressed, or overly stressed.

Menorrhagia: Heavy menstrual bleeding due to hormonal aggravation or imbalance. Rose helps to bring balance to hormonal secretions and reduce menstrual bleeding.

Respiratory Distress: Commonly prescribed or recommended for soothing the respiratory tract, lungs, and throat rose tea is an excellent choice if you are struggling with a cold or flu. It also helps to expel mucus and phlegm, which is where bacteria and other pathogens can live and thrive.

Sexual Dysfunction: in men can be in the form of loss of libido i.e. having no inclination towards a sexual act. There can also be a low erection time or semen expelled soon after a sexual activity. This is also referred to as ‘early discharge’ or premature ejaculation. Intake of Rose products helps in proper functioning of male sexual performance.

Sleep Disorders: The natural sedative property of rose tea makes it a wonderful beverage to finish a night, allowing it to reduce stress, and regulate sleep patterns and Circadian rhythm. If you suffer from insomnia, or regularly have disturbed or interrupted sleep, try this tea before going to bed.

Benefits of Consuming Rose Hips

Aging skin: Early research shows that taking rose hip powder helps to reduce wrinkles and improve skin quality in aging adults.

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Menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea): Early research shows that taking rose hip extract might help to reduce pain from menstrual cramps.

Osteoarthritis: Most research shows that taking rose hip by mouth can reduce pain and stiffness and improve function in people with osteoarthritis.

Pain after surgery: Some research shows that taking a single dose of rose hip extract immediately prior to a C-section helps to reduce pain and the need for pain medications after surgery.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): Early research shows that taking rose hip by mouth improves some symptoms of RA.

Urinary tract infections or UTIs: Early research shows that taking rose hip powder after a C-section might lower the chance of having bacteria in the urinary tract.

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Recommended Dosage of Rose Products

Rose Powder – ¼ to ½ teaspoon twice a day. Add to milk or water and have it on an empty stomach. Use it once or twice a day to get rid of acidity.

Rose Capsule – 1-2 capsules twice a day. Take 1-2 Rose capsules. Swallow it with water or milk after taking food twice a day.

Rose Jam – ¼ to ½ teaspoon twice a day

Rose Juice – 2-3 teaspoons twice a day.

Rose Leaves – Take 2-4 leaves of Rose. Chew them preferably in the morning to get rid of mouth ulcers.

Rose Tea – 1 tsp rose powder or 1 tbsp rose petals/buds boiled in 8oz water for 3 min.

Rose Water – 2-3 teaspoons twice a day.

Medication Interactions with Roses

Aluminum interacts with ROSE HIP: Aluminum is found in most antacids. Rose hips contain vitamin C. Vitamin C can increase how much aluminum the body absorbs. But it is not clear if this interaction is a big concern. Take rose hip two hours before or four hours after antacids.

Estrogens interacts with ROSE HIP: Rose hip contains a large amount of vitamin C. Vitamin C can increase how much estrogen the body absorbs. Taking rose hip along with estrogen can increase the effects and side effects of estrogens. Some estrogen pills include conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin), ethinyl estradiol, estradiol, and others.

Fluphenazine (Prolixin) interacts with ROSE HIP: Rose hip contains vitamin C. Large amounts of vitamin C might increase how quickly the body gets rid of fluphenazine (Prolixin). Taking rose hip along with fluphenazine (Prolixin) might decrease the effectiveness of fluphenazine (Prolixin).

Warfarin (Coumadin) interacts with ROSE HIP: Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Rose hip contains vitamin C. Large amounts of vitamin C might decrease the effectiveness of warfarin (Coumadin). Decreasing the effectiveness of warfarin (Coumadin) might increase the risk of clotting. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.

Lithium interacts with ROSE HIP: Rose hip might have an effect like a water pill or “diuretic.” Taking rose hip might decrease how well the body gets rid of lithium. This could increase how much lithium is in the body and result in serious side effects. Talk with your healthcare provider before using this product if you are taking lithium. Your lithium dose might need to be changed.

Aspirin interacts with ROSE HIP: The body breaks down aspirin to get rid of it. Rose hip contains large amounts of vitamin C. Large amounts of vitamin C might decrease the breakdown of aspirin. Taking large amount of rose hip along with aspirin might increase the effects and side effects of aspirin. Do not take large amounts of vitamin C if you take large amounts of aspirin.

Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate (Trilisate) interacts with ROSE HIP: Rose hip contains vitamin C. Vitamin C might decrease how quickly the body gets rid of choline magnesium trisalicylate (Trilisate). But it is not clear if this interaction is a big concern.

Salsalate (Disalcid) interacts with ROSE HIP: Rose hip contains vitamin C. Vitamin C might decrease how quickly the body gets rid of salsalate (Disalcid). Taking rose hip along with salsalate (Disalcid) might increase the effects and side effects of salsalate.

References:

https://www.webmd.com/diet/rose-tea-good-for-you

https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-76146/rose-water/

https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-839/rose-hip

https://www.livestrong.com/article/412805-what-are-the-benefits-of-eating-rose-petals/

https://www.1mg.com/ayurveda/rose-105

https://www.baldwins.co.uk/blog/5-benefits-of-rose-petals-for-natural-health-beauty

https://www.healthline.com/health/rose-water-benefits

https://draxe.com/beauty/rose-water/

https://healthyfocus.org/8-benefits-of-rose-tea/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3586833/

Rose Essential Oil

Rose Otto & Absolute

Rose oil (rose otto, attar of rose, attar of roses or rose essence), this fragrant essential oil is known for its wonderful, classic floral scent that is comforting and timeless. Rose Otto can be helpful during times of duress and extreme sadness. It is also gentle to the skin and helps heal dry, reddened patches.

The petals of the rose bush are harvested at sunrise when the fragrance of the flower is at its most powerful. Steam distillation is applied to the petals, releasing a clear liquid with an exquisite, rosy aroma. It takes over 200 flowers to make a single drop of essential oil, making this a truly luxurious oil to use in home aromatherapy blends.

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Rose Otto is hydro-distilled from the petals of the rose flower, creating a clear, thin liquid that can solidify at a temperature of 68 degrees F. If solid, put in a bag and insert into warm water. The oil will quickly return to a liquid state. This occurs with Rose Otto because of the distillation process and is completely normal. A little of this oil goes a long way, so only a drop is necessary to utilize its benefits.

Two major species of rose are cultivated for the production of rose oil:

Rosa damascena, the damask rose, which is widely grown in Bulgaria, Syria, Turkey, Russia, Pakistan, India, Uzbekistan, Iran and China

Rosa centifolia, the cabbage rose, which is more commonly grown in Morocco, France and Egypt.

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Rose absolute (Rosa damascena): This has a deep, rich color and a scent to match. Not especially sweet, nor indeed anything like the rose aroma that is associated with many rose-scented toiletry products. Rounded and persistent, a little goes a long way. The lowest price of all the rose oils due to the higher production yield. Great if you need a strong rose aroma for a blend however the use of a solvent to extract the oil brings its own dilemmas when it comes to using on the skin.

Persian Rose essential oil (Rosa damascena): Solid at room temperature, this oil has a high level of plant waxes which slow its movement down a little in comparison to the other distilled rose oils. The Persian Rose has a slightly softer, sweeter scent than the classic Bulgarian Rose. At around two-thirds the cost of Bulgarian Rose this oil makes a good introduction to the distilled rose oils.

Bulgarian Rose essential oil (Rosa damascena): The classic rose, deep, rich and inviting. There are two varieties, the organic oil and the traditionally farmed oil. They share the same base scent however the organic version is a little deeper and more complex (and costs more due to the increased costs associated with organic farming).

White Rose essential oil (Rosa alba): Not a Rosa damascena but a Rosa alba. A dusky and mysterious fragrance.

Turkish Rose essential oil (Rosa damascena): Similar to the Bulgarian Rose in terms of scent but perhaps a little more grounding and earthy. Previously this oil cost less than its Bulgarian counterpart but more recently it has been the other way round.

Types of Rose Extracts

Rose Otto Essential Oil is lighter in color and thinner in viscosity than Rose CO2 Extract or Rose Absolute. It is made directly by steam distilling fresh rose petals. Two tons of rose petals to make two ounces of essential oil.

Rose CO2 Extract is a bit thicker to work with, even at room temperature because the CO2 extraction process can extract more of the heavier aromatic molecules, natural plant waxes and resins than can steam distillation. Aromatically, Rose CO2 Extract has a beautiful aroma that is more complete and more closely represents the natural fragrance of fresh roses (Rosa damascena).

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Rose Absolute is often favored by fragrance formulators and perfumists for its fragrance, aromatic strength and lower cost than Rose Otto Essential Oil or Rose CO2 Extract.

Chemical Composition of Rose Otto

  • Citronellol – effective mosquito repellant (also found in citronella).
  • Citral – strong antimicrobial that is necessary for vitamin A synthesis (also found in lemon myrtle and lemongrass).
  • Carvone – effective digestive aid (also found in caraway and dill).
  • Citronellyl Acetate – responsible for the pleasant flavor and aroma of roses, which is why it is in many skin and beauty products.
  • Eugenol – also the powerhouse behind clove, the richest antioxidant in the world.
  • Farnesol – natural pesticide (also found in orange blossom, jasmine and ylang-ylang).
  • Methyl Eugenol – local antiseptic and anesthetic (also found in cinnamon and lemon balm).
  • Nerol – sweet-smelling aromatic antibiotic compound (also found in lemongrass and hops).
  • Phenyl Acetaldehyde – another sweet-smelling and aromatic compound (also found in chocolate).
  • Phenyl Geraniol – natural form of geraniol, which is commonly in perfumes and fruit flavorings.

Blends Well With: Bergamot, Chamomile Roman, Clove Bud, Geranium (All Types), Helichrysum Italicum, Jasmine Absolute, Lemon, Neroli, Palmarosa, Patchouli, Petitgrain, Sandalwood, Vetiver, and Ylang Ylang

Benefits of Using Rose Otto, CO2 Extract or Absolute

The most therapeutic effects of R. damascena in ancient medicine are including treatment of abdominal and chest pain, strengthening the heart, treatment of menstrual bleeding and digestive problems, and reduction of inflammation, especially of the neck. North American Indian tribes used a decoction of the root of R. damascena plant as a cough remedy to ease children’s cough. Rose oil heals depression, grief, nervous stress and tension. It helps in the reduction of thirst, healing old cough, special complaints of women, wound healing, and skin health. Vapor therapy of rose oil is helpful for some allergies (unless you are allergic to roses), headaches, and migraine.

Acne: able to completely destroy Propionibacterium acnes (the bacteria responsible for acne) after only five minutes of a 0.25 percent dilution!

Depression: women experienced significant decrease in depression scores, they also reported marked improvement in general anxiety disorder.

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Improves Dysmenorrhea (Painful Period): a nonpharmacologic treatment method, as an adjuvant to conventional treatment methods may be beneficial for pain relief in individuals with primary dysmenorrhea.

Eczema: the soothing effects of rose oil, when diluted in a lotion or carrier oil, helps to relieve dry, red patches of skin

Frigidity: as an anti-anxiety agent, rose essential oil can greatly help men with sexual dysfunction related to performance anxiety and stress. It may also help to balance sex hormones, which can contribute to increased sex drive.

Mature Skin: it has potent anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, it contains antioxidants that fight off free radicals which encourage skin damage and skin aging. Free radicals can cause damage to skin tissue, which results in wrinkles, lines and dehydration.

Stress: the uplifting and calming effects of rose oil can help you deal with life’s stressors more effectively.

Rose Essential Oil Safety Information

Essential Oil Safety forewarns that Rose Otto may contain methyeugenol and states: “We recommend a dermal maximum of 0.6% and a maximum oral dose of 21mg, based on 3.3% methyleugenol content, with dermal and oral limits of 0.02% and 0.01mg/kg for methyleugenol).

For external use only. Do not use undiluted on the skin. Avoid contact with sensitive areas, such as eyes. Keep out of reach of children. Do not use essential oils on children under 5 years old. Consult your healthcare professional before using essential oils during pregnancy. Best kept in a cool dry place. Naturally occurring allergens: Citral, Citronellol, Eugenol, Farnesol, Geraniol and Linalool.

References:

https://www.aromaweb.com/essential-oils/rose-oil.asp

https://www.tisserand.com/essential-oils/rose-otto-essential-oil/

https://www.planttherapy.com/rose-otto-essential-oil

https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-76921/rose-oil-emollient-topical/detai

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3586833/

https://oshadhi.co.uk/articles/essential-oil-profiles-how-to-choose-a-rose-oil